Sunday, July 23, 2023
- Buoy 238 (Barbers Pt)/Buoy 239 (Lani): Seas were 2.3 ft @ 5.9 secs with swell 0.9 ft @ 12.5 secs from 182 degrees. Water temp 79.9 degs (Barbers Pt), 79.9 (Pearl Harbor 233), 80.2 (Lani 239).
- Buoy 106 (Waimea): This buoy is down. Using Buoy 202 (Hanalei): Seas were 5.4 ft @ 7.1 secs with swell 4.3 ft @ 6.5 secs from 69 degrees. Water temp 79.0 degs
- Buoy 46025 (Catalina RDG): Seas were 1.8 ft @ 12.0 secs with swell 0.8 ft @ 12.7 secs from 200 degrees. Wind southeast at 8-12 kts. Water temperature 68.7 degs, 69.6 (Topanga 103), 64.9 degs (Long Beach 215), 69.8 (Oceanside Offshore 045), 68.9 (Del Mar 153), 71.1 (Torrey Pines Outer 100). At Harvest Buoy (071) primary swell was 4.0 ft @ 7.6 secs from 309 degrees. At E. Santa Barbara (46053) swell was 1.9 ft @ 6.5 secs from 266 degrees. At Santa Monica (028) swell was 0.7 ft @ 14.6 secs from 208 degrees. At Oceanside (045) swell was 1.0 ft @ 14.8 secs from 210 degrees. Southward at Pt Loma (191) swell was 1.0 ft @ 14.9 secs from 210 degrees. Water temperature was 70.3 degrees.
- Buoy 46012 (Half Moon Bay) Out of Service /029 (Pt Reyes): Seas were 8.5 ft @ 7.1 secs with swell 7.3 ft @ 6.5 secs from 323 degrees. Wind northwest at 14-64 kts (46026). Water temp 51.4 (Bodega Bay 46013), 51.1 degs (Pt Reyes 029), 54.9 (San Francisco 46026), 57.9 (SF Bar 142), 61.0 (Pt Santa Cruz 254) and 54.1 (Monterey Bay 46042).
Swell Classification Guidelines
Significant: Winter - Swell 8 ft @ 14 secs or greater (11+ ft faces) for 8+ hours (greater than double overhead).
Summer - Head high or better.
Advanced: Winter - Swell and period combination capable of generating faces 1.5 times overhead to double overhead (7-10 ft)
Summer - Chest to head high.
Intermediate/Utility Class: Winter - Swell and period combination generating faces at head high to 1.5 times overhead (4-7 ft).
Summer - Waist to chest high.
Impulse/Windswell: Winter - Swell and period combination generating faces up to head high (1-4 ft) or anything with a period less than 11 secs.
Summer - up to waist high swell. Also called 'Background' swell.
Surf Heights for Hawaii should be consider 'Hawaiian Scale' if period exceeds 14 secs.
On Sunday (7/23) North and Central CA waves were knee to thigh high and soft coming from the northwest with some northwest warble intermixed but almost clean. Protected breaks were waist to maybe chest high and fairly clean with some northwest texture on it and soft. At Santa Cruz surf was flat and clean. In Southern California/Ventura waves were knee high and warbled from west winds and crumbled and not really surfable. Central Orange County had sets at waist high and somewhat lined up but soft with south warble on it and a crumbled mess. South Orange County's best summertime breaks had sets at waist high and textured and soft and of no real interest. North San Diego had sets at maybe thigh high and weakly lined up and soft and clean. Oahu's North Shore was flat and clean with some sideshore lump running through it. The South Shore had some thigh to waist high sets and clean and soft. The East Shore was getting east windswell at waist high and chopped from moderate easterly trades.
See QuikCASTs for the 5 day surf overview or read below for the detailed view.
On Sunday (7/23) no swell of interest was hitting Hawaii to California other than locally generated windswell. And beyond no swell producing weather systems are forecast. we're waiting for the Active Phase of the MJO to break up the log jam over the Pacific.
See all the details below...
SHORT- TERM FORECAST
Current marine weather and wave analysis plus forecast conditions for the next 72 hours
On Sunday (7/23) no swell of interest was in the water or being generated relative to Hawaii or California.
Over the next 72 hours no swell producing weather systems of interest are forecast.
North Pacific Animations: Jetstream - Surface Pressure/Wind - Sea Height - Surf Height
No tropical systems of interest were being monitored.
California Nearshore Forecast
- Mon AM (7/24) weak low pressure is to be off the Pacific Northwest with high pressure ridging under it into California producing northwest winds at 15+ kts for North CA early and 10-15 kts for Central CA. In the afternoon the pattern holds with northwest winds at 10-15 kts for North CA and 15-20 kts for Central CA. Minimal short period wind chop expected at best.
- Tues AM (7/25) northwest winds to be 15 kts over a shallow area along North CA and 15+ kts for Central CA early offering little to no support for windswell production. In the afternoon the low is to move inland over Washington with northwest winds 15-20 kts in shallow pockets along the coast of North and Central CA. No real windswell expected to result.
- Wed AM (7/26) northwest winds start to grow in coverage as high pressure returns in earnest with 20 kt northwest winds along North CA and 15+ kts for Central CA. No change in the afternoon with 15-20 kts northwest winds along the North and Central CA coasts. Windswell building some.
- Thurs AM (7/27) northwest winds continue at 15-20 kts along the coast of North and Central CA. In the afternoon northwest winds drop to 15 kts for North Ca and holds at 15-20 kts for Central CA. Minimal short period windswell continues.
- Fri AM (7/28) northwest winds continue at 15 kts for North CA and 20 kts for Central CA. In the afternoon no change is forecast. Minimal northwest windswell continues.
- Sat AM (7/29) no change is forecast with northwest winds 15+ kts for North Ca and mostly 20 kts for Central CA early. In the afternoon northwest winds build at 20 kts solid for North and Central CA. Northwest windswell builds.
- Sun AM (7/30) northwest winds continue at 20+ kts for North and Central CA early. The lingering La Nina/Negative PDO pattern is well dug in and appears to not be changing anytime soon unless the Active MJO develops.
Total snow accumulation for the next 10 days respectively for Squaw Valley, Sugar Bowl, Kirkwood and Mammoth are projected at 0, 0, 0, and 0 inches.
Freezing level for the Pacific Crest Trail and Tioga Pass Road intersection: 14,000+ ft steady from here forward. Summer has arrived in the mountains (starting 7/1). Solid snowmelt continuing.
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Tioga Pass/Pacific Crest Trail intersection forecast: Temps - Freeze Level
More locations here (scroll down to 'Resort Snow Forecasts>Central CA or North CA Caltrans & Backcountry')
Snow Models: http://www.stormsurf.com/mdls/menu_snow.html (Scroll down for Resort specific forecasts).
On Sunday (7/23) the jetstream was split with the northern branch dominating producing a steady flow of 150 kt winds tracking east on the 30S latitude line weakening before pushing over South Chile while the influential southern branch was falling southeast and ridging over the Ross Ice Shelf with winds at 90-100 kts offering no support for gale development. The jet was continue to fall southeast over Antarctica from there offering nothing. Over the next 72 hours wind energy is forecast continuing to push east across Antarctic Ice reinforcing the ridge over the South Pacific and unchanged offering no support for gale development. Beyond 72 hours starting Thurs (7/27) more of the same is forecast with the ridge in control of the southern reaches of the South Pacific tracking over Antarctic Ice. Perhaps the jet is to lift a bit to the north over the far Southeast Pacific on Sun (7/30) trying to produce a trough but only reaching up to 64S and still mostly over ice encased waters offering no support for gale development. The Inactive Phase of the MJO paired with a fading La Nina patter is having a massively negative effect on the storm machine.
On Sunday (7/23) no swell of interest was in the water.
Over the next 72 hours swell from a small gael previously in upper reaches of the Central South PAcific is to be tracking north (see Central South Pacific Gale below).
Otherwise no swell producing weather systems are forecast. The focus seems to be the South Atlantic and the Indian Ocean which seems like the Active Phase of the MJO is there rather than in the Pacific.
A gale is forecast developing south of Tasmania on Mon AM (7/24) tracking northeast producing a broad area of 35-40 kts southwest winds and seas building to 37 ft at 49.25S 143.75E aimed east-northeast. In the evening 30-35 kt southwest winds are forecast over the Southern Tasman Sea producing seas of 31 ft at 48.5S 153.5E aimed northeast targeting Fiji. On Tues AM (7/25) 35 kt southwest winds are to be snuggled up to the North Island of New Zealand with 27-28 ft seas targeting Fiji and NZ at 43.5S 164.25E aimed northeast.
On Tues evening (7/25) a new fetch of 55 kt southwest winds are to develop in the South Tasman Sea producing 37 ft seas at 52S 151E aimed northeast targeting Fiji. On Wed AM (7/26) 50 kt southwest winds are to be near the southern tip of New Zealand producing 41 ft seas at 50.5S 161.25E targeting Fiji and New Zealand but not in the Pacific. In the evening the fetch is to be impacting southern New Zealand at 35-40 kts with all seas impacting the southern tip of New Zealand. All seas and fetch to be gone after that.
Maybe some swell for Fiji and New Zealand with luck but nothing of interest is expected for any location in our forecast area.
Central South Pacific Gale
On Thurs PM (7/20) a small cutoff gale developed in the upper reaches of the Central South Pacific producing 40 kt south winds and seas to 25 ft over a tiny area at 36S 145W aimed north. On Fri AM (7/21) fetch was fading from 35 kts with seas 23 ft at 31S 143W aimed northeast. The gale dissipated after that.
Southern CA: Expect swell arrival on Fri (7/28) building to 2.0 ft @ 15 secs later (3.0 ft). Swell holding Sat (7/29) at 2.0 ft @ 14-15 secs early (2.5-3.0 ft). Residuals fading Sun (7/30) from 1.6 ft @ 13 secs (2.0 ft). Swell Direction: 200-206 degrees
North CA: Expect swell arrival on Fri (7/28) building to 1.5 ft @ 15-16 secs later (2.0-2.5 ft). Swell holding Sat (7/29) at 1.7 ft @ 14-15 secs early (2.5 ft). Residuals fading Sun (7/30) fading from 1.8 ft @ 13-14 secs (2.0-2.5 ft). Swell Direction: 200-202 degrees
South Pacific Animations: Jetstream - Surface Pressure/Wind - Sea Height - Surf Height
Marine weather and forecast conditions 3-10 days into the future
Beyond 72 hours no swell producing weather systems of interest are forecast.
Beyond 72 hours no swell producing weather systems of interest are forecast.
El Nino Temporarily Stalled - Active MJO Developing
Kelvin Waves #3, #4 and #5 Erupting - NINO3.4 SSTs well in El Nino Territory and Holding Steady
1 Kelvin Wave traversed the Pacific in Dec '22 with a 2nd in Jan-Feb and a 3rd and 4th in March-April and a 5th in May. But after the last Active MJO in mid-to-late May, the MJO stalled. Sea Surface Temperatures in the east are very warm and holding, but not expanding. The atmosphere is showing only the weakest signs of being coupled with the ocean. Fortunately, another Active MJO is developing now (7/20) and will hopefully create another Kelvin Wave and help push the atmosphere towards El Nino.
The Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a periodic weather cycle that tracks east along the equator circumnavigating the globe. It is characterized in it's Inactive Phase by enhanced trade winds and dry weather over the part of the equator it is in control of, and in it's Active Phase by slackening if not an outright reversing trade winds while enhancing precipitation. The oscillation occurs in roughly 20-30 day cycles (Inactive for 20-30 days, then Active for 20-30 days) over any single location on the planet, though most noticeable in the Pacific. During the Active Phase in the Pacific the MJO tends to support the formation of stronger and longer lasting gales resulting in enhanced potential for the formation of swell producing storms. Prolonged and consecutive Active MJO Phases in the Pacific help support the formation of El Nino. During the Inactive Phase the jet stream tends to split resulting in high pressure and less potential for swell producing storm development. Wind anomalies in the Kelvin Wave Generation Area (KWGA) are key for understanding what Phase the MJO is in over the Pacific. The KWGA is located on the equator from 135E-170W and 5 degs north and south (or on the equator from New Guinea east to the dateline). West wind anomalies in the KWGA suggest the Active Phase of the MJO in the Pacific, and east anomalies suggests the Inactive Phase. In turn the Active Phase strengthens and the Inactive Phase weakens the jetstream, which in turn enhances or dampens storm production respectively in the Pacific.And the El Nino/La Nino cycle (collectively know as ENSO - El Nino Southern Oscillation) is a less frequent (about once every 7 years) but more impactful cycle that affects world wide weather. Specifically, strong El Nino events promote storm production in the Pacific while La Nina events suppress storm production. These therefore have a significant impact on the production of swell and surf. The paragraphs below analyze the state of the MJO and ENSO in the Pacific and provide forecasts for upcoming activity (or inactivity depending on the state and interaction of these two oscillations).
Overview: In 2019 warm equatorial waters were fading, and by August a tongue of cool water was tracking west on the equator from Ecuador over the Galapagos reaching to a point nearly south of Hawaii. A bit of a recovery tried to occur during Fall of 2019, with weak warm water building in the Nino 1.2 region, but cool water held in a pool off Peru. By April 2020 a cool pool was starting to build, forming a well defined cool tongue that evolved into La Nina, with it fully developing through July 2020. That pattern continued until late Fall 2022 when trades started fading and by early 2023 multiple Kelvin Waves were in flight with significant warming developing over the East Equatorial Pacific. La Nina was dead on 3/18/2023 with El Nino apparently developing. But it was not coupled with the atmosphere as of 7/20/2023.
LONG-RANGE PACIFIC STORM AND SWELL GENERATION POTENTIAL FORECAST
Summer 2023 = 3.7 (California & Hawaii)
Rating based on a 1-10 scale: 1 being the lowest (small and infrequent surf conditions), 5 being normal/average, and 10 being extraordinary (frequent events of large, long period swells)
Rationale: A 3 year La Nina started fading in Jan 2023 and was gone by April. 3 Active MJO's produced 3 Kelvin Waves with the 3rd in that series poised to start erupting off Ecuador now (May 2023). The CFS model is predicting steady west anomalies from here forward and the leading edge of the low pressure bias on the dateline and forecast to nearly fill the Pacific during June. We are in a state of transition from ENSO neutral to El Nino during the summer of 2023. As a result we will be moving from a period of reduced number of storm days and storm intensity during the early part of Summer towards a period of enhanced storm production starting Late July and beyond, getting fairly intense come Fall. This should result in a slightly below normal level of swells, with swells being below normal duration and period over early Summer. But by late July 2023, the number of storm days, intensity and duration of those storms should start improving as El Nino starts getting a solid footprint on the atmosphere. The net result is we're currently thinking a near normal number of swells with normal size and duration is to result, but all focused sometime after late July 2023. The swell pattern will be normal to somewhat below normal before July and above normal after July 23. And By Sept, the El Nino footprint should be solid. Of course this is all highly speculative at this early and based mostly on the CFS model and it's projection of a building ENSO footprint getting solid by Sept.
KWGA/Equatorial Surface Wind Analysis (KWGA - Kelvin Wave Generation Area - The area 5 degrees north and south of the equator from 170W to 135E)
Analysis (TAO Buoys): As of (7/22) 5 day average winds were strong from the east over the East equatorial Pacific and strong east over the Central Pacific but modest west over the KWGA. Anomalies were weak east over the East equatorial Pacific and neutral over the Central Pacific and moderate west over the KWGA. (Note: These are 5 day average winds, versus realtime, so they lag what is happening today (by about 2.5 days).
2 Week Forecast (GFS Model): (7/23) weak to modest west anomalies were filling the KWGA today. The forecast indicates moderate west anomalies are to continue filling the KWGA from the west to about 165E through 7/28, collapsing 7/29-8/1 then, then rebuilding and filling the KWGA 8/2 and beyond through the end of the model run on 8/8 to the dateline at modest strength. East anomalies on the dateline are to migrate east to 155W and points east of there at the end of the model run. The ECMWF model suggests west anomalies holding at moderate status in the KWGA through 7/28 then building to near strong status. The Active MJO looks to be setting up.
Kelvin Wave Generation Area wind monitoring model: West and East
- MJO/WWB/Wind Projections:
OLR Models: (7/22) A neutral MJO was over the KWGA and equatorial Pacific today. The statistic model indicates a Active MJO pattern building over the KWGA starting on day 10 of the model run and filling it on day 15. The dynamic model indicates the same thing but with the Active signal building to strong status on day 15 of the model run.
Phase Diagrams - 2 week forecast (CA and GEFS): (7/23) The statistical model depicts the Active signal was very weak over the West Pacific and is to stall there the next 2 weeks with one member building to weak status 15 days out. The dynamic model indicates the Active Phase backtracking to the far West Pacific and holding a very weak status.
40 day Upper Level Model (assumed to be a statistical mode and 1 week ahead of what is occurring at the surface): (7/23) A modest Active (wet) pattern over building over the West Pacific today. The forecast has the Active Phase (wet air) continuing over the KWGA through 8/2 then fading while pushing east of the KWGA and into Ecuador on 8/12 and weak. A new Inactive Phase (dry air) is to develop over the the KWGA on 8/12 filling it through 8/27 and fairly strong then fading while moving over the East Pacific the last day of the model run on 9/1.
4 Week CFS Model (850 mb wind): (7/22) Today a neutral MJO was over the KWGA but with moderate plus west anomalies filling it. The forecast indicates west anomalies continuing over the KWGA at near strong status through 7/24, then fading to moderate status while easing east to 8/4, fading for a few days, then returning a moderate strength filling the KWGA through the last day of the model run on 8/19.
3 Month CFS Model (850 mb wind): (7/23) - using the 5th ensemble member - the mean of the 4 individual members which are all from the 00Z run - 1 run per day):
Today the Active Phase was filling the KWGA with west anomalies at modest strength filling the KWGA. The forecast has the Active Phase holding through 8/16 with west anomalies solid. A neutral phase is forecast 8/8-9/12 but with moderate west anomalies still in control and stronger at times after 8/24. Another Active Phase is forecast 9/12 and beyond with moderate plus west anomalies forecast through the end of the model run on 10/20. Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) suggests cloud activity took over the KWGA on 7/6 and is holding if not building today and forecast to build even more solid moving forward. The low pass filter indicates the high pressure bias with 1 contour line centered at 115W with its western perimeter at 122W today and well east of the KWGA and moving east to 120W in Aug and tracking slowly east from there and gone by Oct 12. A broad low pressure bias is established over the West KWGA centered at 170E with 3 contour lines and it's leading edge well east of the dateline at 145W today (it started pushing east on 2/15). A 3rd contour line is in place and is to continue through 9/16. The primarily contours leading edge is to be locked at 135W then moving to 122W at the end of the model run with it's center easing east to 180W. 7/18 was the start of a major positive change in the development of El Nino with a advent of the Active Phase of the MJO. It appears a borderline strong El Nino is developing.
CFSv2 3 month forecast for 850 mb winds, MJO, Rossby etc - Alternate link
Subsurface Waters Temps
TAO Array: (7/20) Today in the far West Pacific the leading edge of the 30 deg isotherm was present at 180W (previously 180W) and backbuilding. The 29 degree isotherm was building east to 160W. The 28 deg isotherm line was backtracking to 139W (previously 120W). The 26 degree isotherm extended the whole way across the Pacific and was a little shallower at 55 M down (previously 65 m) in the far East. Anomaly wise, warm anomalies at +2 deg C started at 154W (previously 156W) pushing east with +3-6 degs anomalies over the East Pacific starting at 143W (145W on 7/20). +6 degree anomalies were from 105W into Ecuador (previously 108W on 7/20). The warm pool is discharging to the surface and no new warm water other than a steady base warm state at +1 to +2 degs were in the West Pacific, meaning no new Kelvin Wave were in-flight. that said, a tiny pocket of +2 deg anomalies were developing at 175W. There's about 2 months of warm water backed up off the Ecuadorian Coast today. The hi-res GODAS animation posted 7/17 indicates a huge very warm stream of +1-2 degs anomalies extending from the far West Pacific from 145E and building while tracking east and then upwards from there over the far East Pacific with +4-5 degs anomalies from Kelvin Wave #3 & #4 erupting from 125W into Ecuador. Another pocket of warming waters were falling off the Maritime Continent into the far West Pacific reaching east to 140E at +2 degs (Kelvin Wave #6). In other words, this image suggests there more warm water flowing east from the Maritime Continent than what the TAO array suggests but no defined clear Kelvin Wave was evident. More just a very warm stream/base state. No cool anomalies were indicated. El Nino is developing. The GODAS animation is 1 week behind the TAO data but also is more detailed and accurately depicted since its satellite based.
Sea Level Anomalies: (7/17) Sea heights were positive across the equatorial West Pacific at +0-5 cms from 120E to 160W with a break east of there to 140W where 0-5 cm anomalies starting with a +10-15 cm pocket embedded from 107W east into Ecuador. The break suggests no major reservoir of warm water in the West Pacific moving east. Positive anomalies extending north into Central America and south to Chile. This means no cool water was at depth. Per the Upper Ocean Heat Anomaly Histogram warm water continues building in intensity and coverage at +1.00-2.00 degs over the East Pacific from 133W and east of there. But a broad pocket of near neutral temps is in place west of there in the 0-0.5 degs range from 138E to 165W. The warm water flow has backed off with nothing to force more warm water east (i.e. no Active MJOs occurring). Otherwise there's been no change since mid March, a steady flow of warm water pushing east.
Surface Water Temps
The more warm water in the equatorial East Pacific means more storm production in the North Pacific during winter months (roughly speaking). Cold water in that area has a dampening effect. Regardless of what the atmospheric models and surface winds suggest, actual water temperatures are a ground-truth indicator of what is occurring in the ocean. All data is from blended infrared and microwave sensors.
Hi-res Nino1.2 & 3.4 Qualitative Analysis: (7/22) The latest images depict a strong warm signal along the coasts of Peru and Ecuador (the strongest so far this event) and building in strength and coverage out to 110W with lesser but still serious heat extending west to 130W. Lesser heat extended west to the dateline and beyond. Heat also extends north up Mexico reaching the middle of Baja and south down into Patagonia. There is a very clear El Nino signal with the classic El Nino triangle in-place. The last remnants of La Nina are gone on the equator but remnants are still quite evident along the California and Baja coast with cold temps and a Springtime upwelling pattern still in control there, but weaker than weeks past. La Nina is not budging atmospherically over the Pacific. We need the atmosphere to couple with the ocean.
Hi-res 7 day Trend (7/22): A neutral pattern was in control of the equatorial Pacific. That said, pockets of warming and cooling were interspersed on the equator from the Galapagos to 120W. But it's not surprising there's no clear signal of strong warming along Ecuador because temps are already so warm they can't get any hotter. A neutral trend was along the coasts of Chile and Peru. The pattern of adding energy to the warm surface pool is stable if not inching forward. A warming trend had been well entrenched over the East Pacific since Nov 1 with no cooling waters over the equatorial East Pacific since 12/15 except for the time frame from 4/23 to today. Also not warming along California and Mexico, possibly signaling the demise of the cool upwelling 'La Nina hangover' pool.
Hi-res Overview: (7/22) Warmer than normal waters are filling the East Pacific off Chile, Peru, Ecuador and north up to Mexico with strong warming in many pockets along the immediate cost of Peru and Ecuador out to 105W. And the classic El Nino tongue of more intense warming is building considerably over the equator west to the dateline and beyond. No cool waters were on the equator anymore. Everything is now looking like El Nino. But the La NIna enhanced cool pool off California persists unfazed. Very perplexing. It's a clear sign of the negative PDO and it is not budging.
Nino1.2 Daily CDAS Index Temps: (7/22) (Coral Reef temps run about +0.2 degrees higher). Today's temps were down some at +3.191 after being up some at +3.391 (on 7/20) and had been rising from +2.906 (starting 7/3) rising from +2.451 after peaking at +2.7926 on 6/13 and have been up in the +2.0 to +3.0 degs range since 4/1 having previously peaked at +2.891 (4/13). Previously temps reached +2.302 degrees on 4/6, +1.732 degs (3/22), up from +0.462 since 2/28. Temps had reached as high as +1.076 on 2/19 and were previously steady at +0.848 since 2/7. Previously they started steadily rising 11/13 when they were around -1.5 degs C.
Nino 3.4 Daily CDAS Index Temps: (7/22) (Coral Reef anomalies run about +0.2 degrees higher). Today temps are falling some at +0.872 degs after being up to +0.934 degs (7/20) after peaking at +0.985 (7/18), after rising slightly at +0.882 (7/9) after being steady at +0.794 4-5 days and that after being steady at +0.895 (3 days near 6/25) after being in the +0.712 range the previous 9 days after previously rising to +0.975 on 6/9. We are now 31 days into a trend of being above the El Nino threshold (for the 2nd time). Temps reached the El Nino threshold for the first time on 5/17 at +0.507 then quickly fell over the next 10 days down to +0.378 (5/26). Previous peaks of +0.318 on 4/30 besting the previous peak at +0.199 on 4/21. Temps have been steadily increasing hitting 0.0 on 4/12 and were then more or less steady the previous 4 weeks. Temps previously rose to -0.402 on 2/23. Temps rose above the La Nina threshold (-0.5 degs) on 2/22 and had been rising slowly since 2/12 when they were about -1.0 degs C. They had been in the -1.0 deg range since at least Nov 2022.
CFSV2 Forecast for Nino3.4 Sea Surface Temp (SST) Anomalies & Current SST Anomalies
SST Anomaly Projections
CFSv2 Data (Nino3.4 Region)
Previous - Temps rose in early Nov 2020 after bottoming out at -1.25 degs, up to -0.01 degs in mid-June 2021 then fading to -1.05 degs in mid-Nov then rebuilding to -0.7 in mid Feb 2022 then fading to -1.1 degs in May before starting an upward climb peaking in mid-June at -0.65 degs and mid July at -0.55 degs. A steady decline set in after that falling to -1.00 degs in Aug and Sept rising to -0.8 degs mid Oct then falling to -1.0 in Nov but then slowly rising to -0.75 degs in Jan 2023 and up to -0.5 degs (above the La Nina threshold) on 2/12. Temps rise to +0.50 degs mid-May and were at +0.9 degs in mid-June.
Forecast (7/23) - Temps are above in the El Nino range at +1.05 degs today and are to slowly rise to +1.25 degs in mid-Aug and +1.75 degs mid Sept, then start rising quickly, to +2.15 degs in Nov and solidly in El Nino territory. The PDF Corrected forecast suggests temps are forecast holding at 1.05 degs into mid-Aug then steadily rising to +1.55 degs in Oct and +1.65 degs in Nov-Dec. According to this version of the model we are building into El Nino through the Summer. But max temps are down from previous runs.
IRI Consensus Plume: The July 19, 2023 Plume (all models) depicts temps are +1.120 degs today (unchanged from June) and it's the 5th month above the La Nina threshold. Temps to rise steadily from here forward to +1.298 in July and up to +1.466 degrees in Oct then fading from there. The dynamic model suggest temps peaking at +1.761 in Oct. The CFS model is right in the middle of the dynamic model range. The dynamic modesl are running much hotter than the statistic models.
See chart here - link.
Atmospheric Coupling (Indicating the presence of El Nino in the atmosphere driven by the ocean):
Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) (negative is good, positive bad - all but the Daily Index was a lagging indicator):
Today (7/23) the Daily Index was negative at -22.71 and has been negative the last 10 days, but positive the previous 21 days. It had been negative 11 days prior to that and positive 5 days previous to that then negative for 27 days previous ending 6/6 with a peak down to -29.32 on 5/31, -64.63 on 5/24 and -31.31 on 5/12. Previously readings were toggling between +10 and -10 for 13 days, but negative the 15 days previous to that, positive the 6 days prior to that after being mostly negative 25 days before that. It fell to -19.40 on 4/2. -17.44 on 2/22, the beginning of a change from which no return seemed likely. It was up to +21.85 on 2/10 and +55.74 on 12/22 and were in the +20 range the previous 22 days.
The 30 day average was falling at +2.72 after crossing the neutral point on 7/3. It previously fell to -19.64 on 6/5 had been falling to -4.13 on 4/4 (lagging indicator driven by the Active Phase of the MJO) after falling to -0.52 on 3/22 previously falling to +4.18 on 11/27 and peaking at +21.57 (10/16) after supposedly peaking at +19.66 on 9/28. It was down to +6.89 on 7/29. It peaked at +20.34 (5/12) the highest in a year and beating last years high of +19.51 (1/14).
The 90 day average was falling at -5.80 and turned negative the first time in years on 5/12. A recent max low was -7.57 on 6/6. It previously peaked at +14.63 on 2/20, +15.61 on 10/25 and +12.92 on 8/11 and that after peaking at +18.40 (7/2) beating it's previous peak of +16.86 (5/31), the highest in a year. It previously peaked at +9.80 (9/21) after falling to it's lowest point in a year at +1.06 (6/9). The 90 day average peaked at +15.75 (2/23/21 - clearly indicative of La Nina then). This index is a lagging indicator but suggests that the Active Phase occurring now is starting to drive the index down, hopefully with no upward trend in sight for at least a year.
Pacific Decadal Oscillation
The PDO theoretically turned from a 16 year negative run (Jan 98-Feb 2014) in early 2014 and was positive till Dec 2019, but has been negative ever since, driven by recent La Nina conditions. In May-July 2021 it was the most negative its been in the -1.80 to -2.04 range since Sept 2012 (-2.99) and then fell to -3.16 in Oct 2021 (the lowest since July 1933) then settled at -2.72 in Nov and Dec 2021. Looking at the long term record, it seems likely we are still in the Cool Phase of the PDO (La Nina 'like') with no signs of moving to the positive/warm phase (El Nino 'like').
See imagery in the ENSO Powertool
Stormsurf Video Surf Forecast for this week. See it Here
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NBC News - Climate Change and Surfing: https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/science/climate-change-good-surfing-other-sports-not-so-much-ncna1017131
Mavericks & Stormsurf on HBO Sports with Bryant Gumbel https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=luQSYf5sKjQ
Pieces Featuring Stormsurf:
Time Zone Converter By popular demand we've built and easy to use time convert that transposes GMT time to whatever time zone you are located. It's ion left hand column on every page on the site near the link to the swell calculator.
Surf Height-Swell Height Correlation Table