Thursday, April 29, 2021
- Buoy 233 (Pearl Harbor Entrance)/Buoy 239 (Lanai): Seas were 3.2 ft @ 12.5 secs with swell 1.4 ft @ 18.1 secs from 209 degrees. Water temp 76.8 degs (Pearl Harbor 233), 77.7 (Lani 239)..
- Buoy 106 (Waimea): Seas were 5.0 ft @ 11.1 secs with swell 3.3 ft @ 11.3 secs from 325 degrees. Water temp 76.6 degs.
- Buoy 46025 (Catalina RDG): Seas were 2.6 ft @ 17.2 secs with swell 1.2 ft @ 15.5 secs from 181 degrees. Wind at the buoy was northeast at 8-10 kts. Water temperature 59.9 degs, 61.2 (Topanga 103), 57.4 degs (Long Beach 215), 60.3 (Del Mar 153), 62.6 (Pt Loma 191). At Harvest Buoy (071) primary swell was 2.2 ft @ 16.3 secs from 211 degrees. At Santa Monica (028) swell was 1.4 ft @ 16.8 secs from 203 degrees. At Oceanside (045) swell was 1.7 ft @ 16.8 secs from 193 degrees. Southward at Point Loma (191) swell was 2.0 ft @ 16.8 secs from 202 degrees.
- Buoy 46012 (Half Moon Bay)/029 (Pt Reyes): Seas were 5.1 ft @ 18.2 secs with swell 1.8 ft @ 17.1 secs from 205 degrees. Wind at the buoy (012) was northwest at 12-16 kts. Water temp 51.6 (029), 54.1 degs (SF Bar) and 55.6 degs (Santa Cruz).
See Hi-Res Buoy Dashboards (bottom of the page)
Swell Classification Guidelines
Significant: Winter - Swell 8 ft @ 14 secs or greater (11+ ft faces) for 8+ hours (greater than double overhead).
Summer - Head high or better.
Advanced: Winter - Swell and period combination capable of generating faces 1.5 times overhead to double overhead (7-10 ft)
Summer - Chest to head high.
Intermediate/Utility Class: Winter - Swell and period combination generating faces at head high to 1.5 times overhead (4-7 ft).
Summer - Waist to chest high.
Impulse/Windswell: Winter - Swell and period combination generating faces up to head high (1-4 ft) or anything with a period less than 11 secs.
Summer - up to waist high swell. Also called 'Background' swell.
Surf Heights for Hawaii should be consider 'Hawaiian Scale' if period exceeds 14 secs.
On Thursday (4/29) North and Central CA had waves at chest high and slightly warbled but otherwise pretty clean and mostly crumbled. Protected breaks were thigh to waist high and clean but soft and weak. At Santa Cruz surf was waist high with some bigger peaks on the sets and lined up and clean but unfocused. In Southern California/Ventura waves were thigh high on the sets and a little broken up and mushed but mostly clean with light northwest wind. Central Orange County had set waves at head high or a little more and lined up coming from the south and clean but nearly closed out. South Orange County's best summertime breaks had sets at 1 ft overhead and lined up and peeling with clean conditions. North San Diego had sets waves at waist high and lined up and clean. Hawaii's North Shore was getting some surf with set waves head high and lined at top spots up but with some northeast warble intermixed but otherwise clean. The South Shore was waist high with sets near shoulder high and clean and lined up with no wind. The East Shore was getting waist high easterly windswell and textured with modest northeast winds early.
See QuikCASTs for the 5 day surf overview or read below for the detailed view.
On Thursday (4/29) California and Hawaii were getting small swell originating from a gale that developed under New Zealand on Tues PM (4/20) tracking east into Fri (4/23) over the Southeast Pacific with seas initially 33 ft fading then rebuilding to to 29 ft. And tiny swell was hitting Hawaii's North Shore from a gale that tracked off Japan Fri-Sat (4/23) with up to 24 ft seas aimed east. Longer term a gale is forecast developing under New Zealand Sat-Sun (5/2) tracking northeast producing up to 28 ft seas. And maybe a stronger one is to form tracking east from under New Zealand Tues-Thurs (5/6) producing up to 46 ft seas aimed east over a small area. Up north the remnants of a tropical system turned extratropical over the West Pacific Tues-Wed (4/28) producing up to 39 ft seas aimed east but not reaching even the dateline. Swell is radiating towards Hawaii. Local northwest windswell is expected for CA starting Sat (5/1).
See all the details below...
SHORT- TERM FORECAST
Current marine weather and wave analysis plus forecast conditions for the next 72 hours
On Thursday (4/29) swell was hitting Hawaii from a weak gale previously in the far Northwest Pacific (see Weak Northwest Pacific Gale below).
Over the next 72 hours swell from Extratropical Storm Surigae was pushing east towards Hawaii (see Extratropical Storm Surigae below). Otherwise no swell producing weather systems are forecast.
Extratropical Storm Surigae
The remnants of Typhoon Surigae turned extratropical resulting in Extratropical Storm Surigae half way between Japan and the dateline on Mon PM (4/26) generating 50 kt northwest winds and seas building from 29 ft at 39N 155E aimed southeast. On Tues AM (4/27) west winds were 45 kts with 39 ft seas building over a small sized area at 43.25N 163E aimed east. In the evening 35-40 kt west winds were pushing east with seas 31 ft at 42N 168E aimed east. On Wed AM (4/28) west winds were fading from 30-35 kts approaching the dateline with 26 ft seas fading at 41N 168E aimed east. In the evening the gale was fading with 30 kt west winds and seas fading from 21 ft at 41N 173E aimed east. This system was gone after that.
Oahu: Expect swell arrival on late on Fri (4/30) with swell building to 2.5 ft @ 17-18 secs at sunset (4.0-4.5 ft). Swell stable on Sat (5/1) at 3.9 ft @ 15 secs (5.5 ft). Swell fading on Sun (5/2) from 3.4 ft @ 13-14 secs (4.5 ft). Dribbles on Mon (5/3) fading from 2.8 ft @ 12-13 secs (3.0-3.5 ft). Swell DIrection: 310-315 degrees
California: Swell is to be buried in local windswell and not independently recognizable.
Weak Northwest Pacific Gale
A gale developed off Japan on Thurs PM (4/22) with 35-40 kt northwest winds and seas building from 24 ft over a tiny area at 34N 149E aimed southeast. On Fri AM (4/23) the gale was fading with 35 kt northwest winds and seas 21 ft near 30N 157E aimed southeast. The gale rebuilt briefly while tracking east in the evening with 35 kt northwest winds and seas 24 ft at 31N 161E aimed east. On Sat AM (4/24) the gale fell apart while tracking northeast fairly quickly with seas from previous fetch fading from 20 ft at 32N 168E.
Oahu: Swell fading on Thurs (4/29) but with local windswell intermixed pushing 3.2 ft @ 10-11 secs (3.0 ft). Windswell to follow (see QuikCASTs for details). Swell Direction: 300 degrees
North Pacific Animations: Jetstream - Surface Pressure/Wind - Sea Height - Surf Height
No tropical systems of interest are occurring nor forecast.
California Nearshore Forecast
- Fri (4/30) northwest winds are forecast at 10 kts for Cape Mendocino early and 15 kts south of there building to 20 kts for Pt Conception early holding all day. No precip modeled over the forecast duration.
- Sat (5/1) northwest winds are to be on the increase forecast at 20 kts early for North CA and 15-20 kts for Central CA early building to 25+ kts for all of North CA and 20-25 kts for Central CA later. Windswell starting to build.
- Sun (5/2) northwest winds are forecast at 25-30 kts from Pt Arena southward early and 25+ kts from Monterey Bay south to Pt Conception holding all day while building over Cape Mendocino later. Windswell building.
- Mon (5/3) northwest winds are forecast at 25-30 kts for North CA and 15-20 kts for Central CA early holding up north if not building to near 35 kts and holding at 20 kts for Central CA later. Windswell mostly steady.
- Tues (5/4) northwest winds are forecast at 30-35 kts for North CA and 20-25 kts for Central CA off the coast early. In the afternoon northwest winds are forecast for North CA at 25-30 kts and 20 kts solid for Central CA. Windswell steady.
- Wed (5/5) northwest winds are to be fading from 20 kts for NOrth Ca early and 10 kts for Central CA fading up north to 10-15 kts and 5 kts for Central CA in the afternoon. Windswell collapsing.
- Thurs (5/6) northwest winds are forecast at 10-15 kts for North CA early and 5 kts for Central CA early building in the afternoon to 15-20 kts everywhere north of Pt Conception. Windswell building late.
Total snow accumulation for the next 10 days respectively for Squaw Valley, Sugar Bowl, Kirkwood and Mammoth at 0 inches, 0 inches, 0 inches, and 0 inches.
Freezing level 14,000+ ft through 4/30 falling to 8500 ft on 5/1 then slowly rebuilding to 12,500 ft on 5/3 and holding through the end of the model run on 5/8.
Snow Models: http://www.stormsurf.com/mdls/menu_snow.html (Scroll down for resort specific forecasts). Updated!
On Thursday (4/29) the jet was disorganized but with the influential southern branch ridging hard south under New Zealand tracking east over the Ross Ice Shelf down at 70S over the breadth of the South Pacific offering no support for gale development. Over the next 72 hours more of the same is forecast until Sat (5/1) when the southern branch is to start lifting northeast from under New Zealand forming a trough being fed by 120 kts winds and tracking northeast to the Central South Pacific on Sun (5/2) offering some limited support for gale development. Beyond 72 hours the trough is to push to the Southeast Pacific on Mon (5/3) while weakening but with the whole of the southern branch lifting north into Tues (5/4) to 58-55N and generally weak with winds 90-100 kts, but still offering limited support for low pressure development. Perhaps another legit trough is to develop over the Southwest Pacific on Wed (5/5) being fed by 120 kts winds pushing east into Thurs (5/6) offering improved support for gale development.
On Thursday (4/29) tiny swell was starting to hit HI and CA from a gale that previously formed under New Zealand traversing the South Pacific (see New Zealand Gale below).
Over the next 72 hours a gale is forecast developing south of New Zealand on Fri PM (4/30) with 40 kt west winds over a broad area and seas 29 ft at 60S 172E aimed east. On Sat AM (5/1) southwest winds to track east at 35 kts with seas 28 ft at 59.5S 180W aimed northeast. Fetch is to be building in coverage in the evening coming from the south at 30-35 kts with seas 25 ft at 59S 170W aimed northeast. Fetch is to continue Sun AM (5/2) from the south at 30 kts with seas 23 ft at 55S 161W aimed northeast. In the evening south to southwest winds to continue at 35 kts over a decent sized area with seas fading to 22 ft at 51S 153W aimed northeast. On Mon Am (5/3) fetch is to be regenerating some at 40 kts over a small area aimed northeast with seas 26 ft at 49S 140.5W aimed northeast. In the evening fetch is to hold at 40 kts from the south over a smaller area with seas 28 ft at 51.5S 135W aimed northeast. The gael is to fade from there. Something to monitor.
New Zealand Gale
Another gale developed southeast of New Zealand on Tues PM (4/20) producing a tiny area of 45-50 kt west winds and seas 33 ft at 62.5S 175W aimed east. On Wed AM (4/21) fetch was lifting gently east-northeast at 45 kts from the west with seas 32 ft over a small area at 60S 163W aimed east. In the evening fetch was pushing northeast at 35-40 kts with seas 30 ft at 59S 152W aimed east-northeast. Fetch was fading Thurs AM (5/22) from 35 kts but over a larger area aimed northeast with seas 26 ft at 58S 143W aimed east-northeast. In the evening fetch was holding at 35 kts from the southwest over a solid area with seas building to 27 ft at 56.5S 133.5W aimed northeast. On Fri AM (4/23) south to southwest winds continued at 35-40 kts over the Southeast Pacific with 29 ft seas at 53.5S 126W aimed northeast. In the evening south winds continued at 35-40 kts with seas 29 ft at 52S 124W aimed northeast. On Sat (4/24) south winds were 35 kts with seas fading from 27 ft at 54.5S 122.5W aimed northeast. The gale faded and moved east of the California swell window after that. Something to monitor.
Hawaii: Expect small swell arrival on Thurs (4/29) building to 1 ft @ 18-19 secs later (1.5 ft). Swell building some on Fri (4/30) pushing 1.3 ft @ 17 secs later (2.0 ft). On Sat (5/1) swell holding at 1.4 ft @ 16 secs (2.0-2.5 ft). Swell fading on Sun (5/2) from 1.1 ft @ 15-16 secs (1.5-2.0 ft). Swell gone after that. Swell Direction: 215 moving to 185 degrees
Southern CA: Swell building on Thurs (4/29) pushing 1.8 ft @ 16 secs later (2.5-3.0 ft). Swell fading on Fri (4/30) from 1.8 ft @ 14-15 secs (2.5 ft). Additional energy is to start building from the south on Sat (5/1) at 2.6 ft @ 16 secs late (4.0 ft). Swell continues on Sun (5/2) at 2.6 ft @ 15 secs early (4.0 ft). Swell fading from 2.5 ft @ 15 secs (3.5 ft) early Mon (5/3). Dribbles on Tues (5/4) fading from 2.1 ft @ 14 secs(2.5-3.0 ft). Swell dissipating on Wed (5/5) from 1.7 ft @ 13 secs (2.0-2.5 ft) early. Swell DIrection: 202 degrees initially then redeveloping from 188 degrees moving to 186 degrees
North CA: Swell building on Thurs (4/29) pushing 1.6 ft @ 16 secs later (2.5 ft). Swell fading on Fri (4/30) from 1.8 ft @ 15 secs (2.5-3.0 ft). Additional energy is to start building from the south on Sat (5/1) at 1.8 ft @ 16-17 secs late (3.0 ft). Swell continues on Sun (5/2) at 2.5 ft @ 15-16 secs early (3.5 ft). Swell fading from 2.2 ft @ 16 secs (3.5 ft) early Mon (5/3). Dribbles on Tues (5/4) fading from 2.1 ft @ 14-15 secs (2.5-3.0 ft). Swell dissipating on Wed (5/5) from 1.8 ft @ 13-14 secs (2.0-2.5 ft) early. Swell DIrection: 199 degrees initially then redeveloping from 187 degrees moving to 184 degrees
South Pacific Animations: Jetstream - Surface Pressure/Wind - Sea Height - Surf Height
Marine weather and forecast conditions 3-10 days into the future
Beyond 72 hours no swell producing fetch of interest is forecast.
Beyond 72 hours another gale is forecast developing under New Zealand on Tues PM (5/4) producing 45-50 kt west winds and seas building from 31 ft at 56S 168E aimed east. On Wed AM (5/5) 55 kt southwest winds are forecast pushing east with seas 45 ft at 58.25S 178.76W aimed east. In the evening fetch is to push east-northeast at 45 kts with seas 40 ft at 56.5S 164W aimed east. On Thurs AM (5/6) southwest winds to be 35+ kts over a broad area timed east-northeast with seas 32 ft at 57.25S 152.5W aimed east. Something to monitor.
Possible another gale to follow under New Zealand on Thurs (5/6).
La Nina Dissipating
Summary - A Kevin Wave was pushing east across the Equatorial Pacific squeezing the cold remains of La Nina from depth to the surface in the far E Pac, A second Kelvin Wave is in flight behind the first. West anomalies forecast over the KWGA for the next 3 months.
The Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a periodic weather cycle that tracks east along the equator circumnavigating the globe. It is characterized in it's Inactive Phase by enhanced trade winds and dry weather over the part of the equator it is in control of, and in it's Active Phase by slackening if not an outright reversing trade winds while enhancing precipitation. The oscillation occurs in roughly 20-30 day cycles (Inactive for 20-30 days, then Active for 20-30 days) over any single location on the planet, though most noticeable in the Pacific. During the Active Phase in the Pacific the MJO tends to support the formation of stronger and longer lasting gales resulting in enhanced potential for the formation of swell producing storms. Prolonged and consecutive Active MJO Phases in the Pacific help support the formation of El Nino. During the Inactive Phase the jet stream tends to split resulting in high pressure and less potential for swell producing storm development. Wind anomalies in the Kelvin Wave Generation Area (KWGA) are key for understanding what Phase the MJO is in over the Pacific. The KWGA is located on the equator from 135E-170W and 5 degs north and south (or on the equator from New Guinea east to the dateline). West wind anomalies in the KWGA suggest the Active Phase of the MJO in the Pacific, and east anomalies suggests the Inactive Phase. In turn the Active Phase strengthens and the Inactive Phase weakens the jetstream, which in turn enhances or dampens storm production respectively in the Pacific.And the El Nino/La Nino cycle (collectively know as ENSO - El Nino Southern Oscillation) is a less frequent (about once every 7 years) but more impactful cycle that affects world wide weather. Specifically, strong El Nino events promote storm production in the Pacific while La Nina events suppress storm production. These therefore have a significant impact on the production of swell and surf. The paragraphs below analyze the state of the MJO and ENSO in the Pacific and provide forecasts for upcoming activity (or inactivity depending on the state and interaction of these two oscillations).
Overview: A double dip La Nina occurred through the Winter of 2017-2018. Warming started building along the South and Central American coast in early March 2018 associated with two upwelling Kelvin Waves, and continued trying to build over equatorial waters over the Summer and Fall, but not enough to declare El Nino and not coupled with the atmosphere. In 2019, those warm waters were fading, and by August a tongue of cool water was tracking west on the equator from Ecuador over the Galapagos reaching to a point nearly south of Hawaii. A bit of a recovery tried to occur during Fall of 2019, with weak warm water building in the Nino 1.2 region, but cool water held in a pool off Peru. By April 2020 a cool pool was starting to build, forming a well defined cool tongue that looked like the start of La Nina, with it fully developing into La Nina in July 2020. We continue in the place in March 2021, but with a Kelvin Wave sweeping east late in March possibly signaling the demise of La Nina.
LONG-RANGE PACIFIC STORM AND SWELL GENERATION POTENTIAL FORECAST
Spring/Summer 2021 = 4.0/3.5 (California & Hawaii)
Rating based on a 1-10 scale: 1 being the lowest (small and infrequent surf conditions), 5 being normal/average, and 10 being extraordinary (frequent events of large, long period swells)
Rationale: It is assumed that the moderate La Nina from the Winter of 2020/2021 is on the wane and that a return to neutral ENSO state will set up over the Pacific Basin through the summer of 2021. But lingering effects of La Nina are forecast to continue over the Pacific for some time as the upper atmospheric circulation slowly transitions to an ENSO neutral state. This scenario tend to favor the Southeast Pacific, therefore favoring California over Hawaii. To counter that is the forecasted movement of the low pressure bias currently in-flight from the Maritime Continent to the West Pacific over the next 3 months. Still it will take some time for the atmosphere to fully respond, resulting in a slightly less than normal swell production forecast. A somewhat reduced number of storm days and storm intensity is expected as compared to normal over the South Pacific during the early summer season, resulting in a below normal level of swells, with swell being below normal duration and period. But by the Fall and early Winter of 2021/22, the number of storm days, intensity and duration of those storms should start improving as La Nina fades out. The status of the PDO is not known, though it appears to be returning to at least a neutral state, rather than the warm phase as previously projected thereby having no significant positive or negative effect on the long term outlook.
KWGA/Equatorial Surface Wind Analysis (KWGA - Kelvin Wave Generation Area - The area 5 degrees north and south of the equator from 170W to 135E)
Analysis (TAO Buoys): As of (4/28) 5 day average winds were strong from the east over the Eastern equatorial Pacific then moderate east over the Central Pacific and moderate east over the KWGA. Anomalies were weakly east over the East equatorial Pacific and weak west over the Central Pacific and light west over the KWGA. (Note: These are 5 day average winds, so they lag what is happening today by about 2 days).
1 Week Forecast (GFS Model): On (4/29) light to modest west anomalies were filling the KWGA. The forecast calls for light to weak west anomalies continuing stable over and filling the KWGA through 5/3 then giving way to moderate east anomalies focused over the dateline area through the end of the model run on 5/6.
Kelvin Wave Generation Area wind monitoring model: West and East
- MJO/WWB/Wind Projections:
OLR Models: (4/28) A modest Active MJO pattern was fading over the dateline region today with a strong Inactive Phase building over the far West Pacific. The statistic model projects the Active signal gone on day 5 the Inactive Phase building over the KWGA steadily through the end of the model run on day 15 and filling the KWGA at that time. The dynamic model indicates the same thing but with the Inactive Phase fading dramatically to moderate status on day 10 and all but gone by day 15 of the model run.
Phase Diagrams 2 week forecast (ECMF and GEFS): (4/29) The statistical model depicts the Active Phase was moderate over the Atlantic today and is to track east to the Central Indian Ocean by day 15 of the model run and weak. The dynamic model suggests the Active Phase is to race east reaching the Maritime Continent and very weak on day 15 of the model run.
40 day Upper Level Model (assumed to be a statistical mode and 1 week ahead of what is occurring at the surface): (4/28) The Active Phase (wet air) was strong over the far East Pacific south of Central America today and is to push east over Central America on 5/3. A strong Inactive Phase (dry air) is moving over the KWGA tracking east and is to move over Central America on 5/13. A moderate Active Phase (wet air) is to push over the KWGA on 5/18 tracking east to East equatorial Pacific while building strong at the end of the model run on 6/7. A new weak Inactive MJO (dry air) is to be building in the West Pacific at that time.
4 Week CFS Model (850 mb wind): (4/28) This model depicts a coherent Active Phase of the MJO tracking through the East KWGA producing modest west anomalies filling the KWGA. The forecast indicates the Active Phase is to track east exiting the KWGA on 5/1 with west anomalies holding at modest status through 5/5. A weak Inactive Phase is to push over the West KWGA 5/1 fading but its remnants pushing over the dateline on 5/10- 5/17 producing weak east anomalies near the dateline 5/5-5/13. After that a neutral MJO and wind pattern is forecast through the end of the model run on 5/26 but with weak east anomalies setting on directly on the dateline starting 5/5 and east of there holding through the end of the model run on 5/26.
3 Month CFS Model (850 mb wind): (4/29 - using the 4th/latest ensemble member): An Active MJO signal was fading while moving east out of the KWGA with modest west anomalies still controlling the KWGA. The forecast indicates it is to track east through the KWGA and gone on 4/30 producing modest to weak west anomalies filling the KWGA into 5/6. This was the first real Active Phase in a year or more. A weak Inactive MJO is starting to push over the far West KWGA today and is to hold over the KWGA through 6/6 but with neutral to weak west anomalies holding over the core of the KWGA. A new moderate Active Phase is to start building in the west on 5/24 pushing east then stalling over the KWGA and holding through the end of the model run on 7/27 with moderate to occasionally strong west anomalies controlling the KWGA. Literally no significant east anomalies are forecast in the KWGA from here forward. A weak Inactive Phase of the MJO is to be building over the west KWGA starting 7/4 through the end of the model run. The low pass filter indicates a high pressure bias is in control over the Central Pacific filling the eastern KWGA but a low pressure bias was building over the West KWGA. The high pressure bias has 3 contour lines reaching east to a point south of the Southwest US. The 3rd contour line is to fade on 5/2. The second contour line is to fade 5/31. The remaining 1 is to be shifting steadily east and losing coverage and no longer in the KWGA after 6/30. A single contour low pressure bias is over the Maritime Continent with it's leading edge half way through the KWGA (at 150E) today. The east edge of the low pressure bias is to track east to the dateline (180W) by 7/4 then filling the KWGA by 7/26 while building to 2 contour lines. We are moving to a neutral ENSO position. East anomalies that have been solid over the KWGA since 10/1/20 are fading and have now migrating east of the KWGA with no return in sight, instead focused over the East Pacific (from the dateline east to a point south of California). Theoretically the end of La Nina is near (starting on 5/1).
CFSv2 3 month forecast for 850 mb winds, MJO, Rossby etc - Alternate link
Subsurface Waters Temps
TAO Array: (4/29) Today in the far West Pacific the 28 deg isotherm line was stable at 170W. The 24 deg isotherm was pushing the whole way across the equatorial Pacific and solid in coverage and depth. Anomaly wise, warm anomalies +3 deg C are in the West Pacific indicative of a new Kelvin Wave building with 1 deg anomalies reaching across the Pacific today pushing to the surface at 125W and reaching into Ecuador indicative of a previous Kelvin Wave poised to impact Ecuador. No cool anomalies were indicated. The hi-res GODAS animation posted 4/23 indicates a dramatic improvement with warm anomalies moving east subsurface to 90W indicative of a Kelvin Wave poised to impact the far East Pacific and barely reaching the surface at 105W. Negative anomalies in the East Pacific were all but gone with residuals getting squeezed to the surface by the Kelvin Wave near Peru. The GODAS animation appears to be 1 week behind the TAO data but also is more detailed and accurately modeled.
Sea Level Anomalies: (4/23) A dramatic improvement continues with sea heights slightly above neutral (0 to +5 cms) over nearly the entire equatorial Pacific. No negative anomalies were present on the equator on along the coasts of Chile, Peru Central America up to Baja Mexico. Only California was measurably negative at -5 cms and that appears to be fading fast. The massive cold triangle that had previously formed over the equator is gone. The demise of La Nina is occurring now.
Surface Water Temps
The more warm water in the equatorial East Pacific means more storm production in the North Pacific during winter months (roughly speaking). Cold water in that area has a dampening effect. Regardless of what the atmospheric models and surface winds suggest, actual water temperatures are a ground-truth indicator of what is occurring in the ocean. All data is from blended infrared and microwave sensors.
Hi-res Nino1.2 & 3.4: (4/28) The latest images indicate slightly warm water was tracking west on the equator from Ecuador over the Galapagos out to 130W but only reaching 2 degs south of the equator. Cool anomalies were south of equator (-2S) from Peru west to the dateline. A solid upwelling (cool anomalies) pattern was still present but isolated to the immediate cost of Peru, and even that appeared to be breaking up. Weak warm water was off Ecuador and Central America up to Southern Baja. Overall this seems to indicate the late stages of La Nina.
Hi-res 7 day Trend (4/28): No clear warming or cooling temps were indicated over the equatorial Pacific.
Hi-res Overview: (4/28) A generic area of warm water was west of Central America. Generic cool water was west of Peru. A weak area of cool water was along the immediate coast of Peru. La Nina appears to be in retreat but not gone.
Nino1.2 Daily CDAS Index Temps: (4/29) Today's temps were steady at -0.720 after previously bottoming out at -0.950 on 4/5. Before that temps peaked at +0.714 on 3/16. Temp previously peaked at +0.601 on 3/9 and that after a recent high of +0.100 on 2/1. Temps previously were -0.604 on 1/24. A previous peak of -0.595 occurred on 12/11. This area has been on a seesaw rising trend since early October. Temps were previously down to -2.138 on 8/13. The longterm trend has been on a slow but steady increase.
Nino 3.4 Daily CDAS Index Temps: (4/29) Temps were rising slightly at-0.186 today after being steady near -0.222 for 2 weeks previous and peaking on 4/15 at -0.157, beating the recent peak of -0.185 on 3/27. The previous peak was -0.170 on 3/10, the highest in a year. Temps bottomed out at -1.654 on 11/3, rising to to -0.982 on 1/21. The previous low before that was -0.733 on 9/10. Temps were on a steady decline since 7/25 then bottomed out in late October and have been on a slow increase since.
CFSV2 Forecast for Nino3.4 Sea Surface Temp (SST) Anomalies & Current SST Anomalies
SST Anomaly Projections
CFSv2 Uncorrected Data (4/27) - This model is disconnected. Actuals per the model indicate temps bottomed out in early Nov at -1.25 degs then rose steadily to -0.15 degs in mid-April. The forecast stats off though down at -0.55 degs rising slightly to -0.20 degs in late June holding into July, then starting a weak fade falling to -0.45 degs in Oct and rising slightly to -0.4 degs in Dec and early Jan 2022. This model now suggests a demise of La Nina with an ENSO neutral trend beyond biased slightly negative. There is no sense that El Nino will develop. We're still in the Spring Unpredictability Barrier, so no outcome is certain.
IRI Consensus Plume: The March 20, 2021 Plume depicts temps are at -0.50 degs today, and are to rise to -0.15 in June and stabilizing there through Nov. Most models are suggesting a moderate La Nina returning to Neutral in the late Spring of 2021.
See chart here - link.
Atmospheric Coupling (Indicating the presence of El Nino in the atmosphere driven by the ocean):
Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) (negative is good, positive bad - this is a lagging indicator) (4/29): The daily index was steady today at 5.05. The 30 day average was rising to +0.55 after peaking at +19.51 on 1/14. The 90 day average was falling slightly at +3.76 after peaking at +15.75 on 2/23 and clearly indicative of La Nina. This index is a lagging indicator.
Pacific Decadal Oscillation
Per NOAAs index recent values: Jan 2018 +0.29, Feb -0.19, Mar -0.61, April -0.89, May -0.69, June -0.85, July -0.09, Aug -0.43, Sept -0.46, Oct -0.75, Nov -0.78, Dec -0.12, Jan 2019 -0.18, Feb -0.50 Mar -0.23, April +0.10, May +0.14, June -0.11, July +0.44, Aug -0.14, Sept +0.05, Oct -0.96, Nov -0.28, Dec +0.01, Jan 2020 -1.17, This continues to look like the warm phase of the PDO. No consistently solid negative readings have occurred since Feb 2014
The Washington/JISAO index (Jan-Dec): Jan 2018 +0.70. Feb +0.37, Mar -0.05, April +0.11, May +0.11, June -0.04, July +0.11, Aug +0.18, Sept +0.09. No real negative readings have occurred since Dec 2013
The PDO turned from a 16 year negative run (Jan 98-Feb 2014) in early 2014 and has been positive ever since (other than a few months of negative readings in Fall 2016, the result of a turn towards La Nina). Looking at the long term record, it is premature to conclude that we have in-fact turned from the negative phase (La Nina 'like') to the positive phase (El Nino 'like'), but the data strongly suggests that could be a possibility. By the time it is confirmed (4-5 years out), we will be well into it.
See imagery in the ENSO Powertool
Stormsurf Video Surf Forecast for this week. See it Here
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NBC News - Climate Change and Surfing: https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/science/climate-change-good-surfing-other-sports-not-so-much-ncna1017131
Mavericks & Stormsurf on HBO Sports with Bryant Gumbel https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=luQSYf5sKjQ
Pieces Featuring Stormsurf:
Time Zone Converter By popular demand we've built and easy to use time convert that transposes GMT time to whatever time zone you are located. It's ion left hand column on every page on the site near the link to the swell calculator.
Surf Height-Swell Height Correlation Table