Saturday, April 9, 2022
- Buoy 233 (Pearl Harbor)/Buoy 239 (Lanai) NA/Buoy 238 (Barbers Pt) NA: Seas were 4.5 ft @ 8.0 secs with swell 3.4 ft @ 7.6 secs from 153 degrees. Water temp 76.8 degs (Barbers Pt), NA (Lani 239), 76.5 (Pearl Harbor 233).
- Buoy 106 (Waimea): Seas were 5.9 ft @ 9.1 secs with swell 4.3 ft @ 9.5 secs from 96 degrees. Water temp 77.2 degs.
- Buoy 46025 (Catalina RDG): Seas were 5.6 ft @ 12.0 secs with swell 3.0 ft @ 12.8 secs from 246 degrees. Wind north at 14-16 kts. Water temperature 62.1 degs, 63.5 (Topanga 103), 62.6 degs (Long Beach 215), 62.8 (Del Mar 153), 61.9 (Imperial Beach 155). At Harvest Buoy (071) primary swell was 10.2 ft @ 11.7 secs from 310 degrees. At Santa Monica (028) swell was 2.5 ft @ 13.7 secs from 218 degrees. At Oceanside (045) swell was 2.4 ft @ 14.1 secs from 208 degrees. Southward at Pt Loma (191) swell was 3.4 ft @ 13.6 secs from 214 degrees. Water temp 64.9 degs.
- Buoy 46012 (Half Moon Bay)/029 (Pt Reyes): Seas were 16.9 ft @ 11.1 secs with swell 14.0 ft @ 10.2 secs from 324 degrees. Wind at buoy 46012 was northwest at 25,4-33.1 kts. Water temp 49.1 degs (Pt Reyes 029), 50.4 (46026), 54.1 (SF Bar 142), and 57.0 (Santa Cruz 254).
Swell Classification Guidelines
Significant: Winter - Swell 8 ft @ 14 secs or greater (11+ ft faces) for 8+ hours (greater than double overhead).
Summer - Head high or better.
Advanced: Winter - Swell and period combination capable of generating faces 1.5 times overhead to double overhead (7-10 ft)
Summer - Chest to head high.
Intermediate/Utility Class: Winter - Swell and period combination generating faces at head high to 1.5 times overhead (4-7 ft).
Summer - Waist to chest high.
Impulse/Windswell: Winter - Swell and period combination generating faces up to head high (1-4 ft) or anything with a period less than 11 secs.
Summer - up to waist high swell. Also called 'Background' swell.
Surf Heights for Hawaii should be consider 'Hawaiian Scale' if period exceeds 14 secs.
On Saturday (4/9) North and Central CA had set waves at 2-3 ft overhead and lined up but pretty warbled and uneven with steady onshore wind. Protected breaks were 2 ft overhead and lined up and closed out and fairly clean with some intermixed lump but not too bad. At Santa Cruz surf was 1 ft overhead or so and lined up and clean with good form but soft. In Southern California/Ventura waves were chest high and fairly lined up but soft and mushed and nearly chopped from northwest wind. Central Orange County had sets at 1 ft overhead and lined up with decent form but pretty warbled and soft and getting torn up by south wind. South Orange County's best summertime breaks were chest high and lined up with decent form but pretty warbled from south wind. North San Diego had sets to head high and lined up with decent form and glassy and fun looking. Hawaii's North Shore had sets at waist to maybe chest high and lined up with decent form but soft and inconsistent but with fairly clean conditions. The South Shore was thigh to maybe waist high on the sets and weak but clean. The East Shore was head high and chopped from moderate east trades.
See QuikCASTs for the 5 day surf overview or read below for the detailed view.
On Saturday (4/9) California was getting locally generated north windswell and perhaps some background southern hemi swell at the most exposed south facing breaks. Hawaii was getting nothing from the north and no swell producing weather systems are forecast for the North Pacific. Down south a system developed southeast of New Zealand on Sun (4/3) tracking east-northeast across the South Pacific through Thurs (4/7) with seas 26-30 ft. The first signs of that swell are to start hitting Hawaii's southern shores today. Beyond a weak gale is forecast over the Southwest Pacific tracking east Sat-Mon (4/11) producing 25-26 ft seas aimed northeast. But after that nothing certain is forecast. Summer is trying to come online and Winter withers.
See all the details below...
SHORT- TERM FORECAST
Current marine weather and wave analysis plus forecast conditions for the next 72 hours
On Saturday (4/9) the jet was split multiple ways off Japan and then again on the dateline with a weak remnant flow ridging through the Gulf of Alaska then falling southeast over Oregon offering no troughs and therefore no support for gale development. Over the next 72 hours the jet is to remain split over Japan and splitting again on the dateline offering nothing in terms of support for gale development. Beyond 72 hours no real change is forecast with a fragmented jetstream flow forecast through Fri (4/15) offering no support for gale development. Perhaps a more consolidated flow to develop on Sat (4/17) with a shallow trough developing over the Northern Gulf being fed by 180 kts winds starting to offer some support for gale development there. But overall it appears Summer is trying to set up.
On Saturday (4/9) only locally generated north windswell was hitting California and east windswell for exposed breaks in Hawaii.
Over the next 72 hours no swell producing weather systems are forecast.
Strong high pressure is to hold off North CA Sat-Tues (4/12) starting at 1040 mbs then slowly weakening producing northwest winds at initially 30-35 kts through the weekend resulting in larger but very raw locally generated northwest windswell and poor surf conditions (see QuikCASTs for details).
The high is to also generate a broad fetch of 15-20 kt northeast to east winds extending from California over Hawaii producing solid easterly windswell at exposed breaks in the Hawaiian Islands (see QuikCASTs for details).
North Pacific Animations: Jetstream - Surface Pressure/Wind - Sea Height - Surf Height
No tropical systems of interest are forecast.
California Nearshore Forecast
Water temps, if they are not already cold enough, are to drop shortly due to upwelling from strong northwesterly winds (see below).
- Sun (4/10) northwest winds are forecast at 30-35 kts for North CA and 15-20 kts for Central CA and 30 kts off the coast early. In the afternoon northwest winds are to still be 30 kts for North CA and Central CA.
- Mon (4/11) morning northwest winds are forecast at 20 kts for Cape Mendocino and 15-20 kts down to Monterey Bay then 20-25 kts for the remainder of Central CA. In the afternoon another bout of high pressure sets up with northwest winds 25 kts for all of North and Central CA. Rain developing over all of North CA falling south to Big Sur in the afternoon. Snow for Tahoe mid-morning and the all the Sierra in the afternoon fading in the evening. .
- Tues (4/12) morning northwest winds are forecast at 15-20 kts for North CA and 25-30 kts for Central CA and possibly 20+ kts for Southern CA. In the afternoon northwest winds are forecast at 15 kts for North CA and 20-25 kts for Central CA and possibly 20-25 kts for Southern CA . Light rain for Cape Mendocino through the day.
- Wed (4/13) northwest winds are forecast at 5 kts for all of North CA and 20-25 kts from Monterey Bay over the remainder of Central CA early. In the afternoon south winds are forecast at 15 kts for North CA with weak low pressure just off the coast light winds from the Golden Gate south Pigeon Point then northwest 20 kts to Pt Conception. Light rain down to Pt Arena early and building in intensity through the day reaching the Golden Gate in the evening as snow develops for Tahoe.
- Thurs (4/14) morning high pressure returns with northwest winds 20-25 kts for North CA early and 10-15 kts for Central CA. In the afternoon northwest winds are forecast at 20 kts for North and Central CA and 15-20 kts for Southern CA. Rain continuing solid for North CA reaching Santa Cruz early and heavy snow for Yosemite northward early. Heavy snow falling south over the entire Sierra by sunset with rain to Pt Conception then fading in the evening.
- Fri (4/15) northwest winds is forecast at 15 kts for North and Central CA early. In the afternoon northwest winds are forecast at 10 kts for North CA and 15-20 kts for Central CA and 20+ kts for Southern CA. Light rain for Cape Mendocino early falling to Bodega bay in the afternoon. Light snow for Tahoe late afternoon into the early evening.
- Sat (4/16) north west winds are forecast at 10-15 kts for North CA early and 20 kts for Central CA. In the afternoon more of the same is forecast. No precip forecast.
Total snow accumulation for the next 10 days respectively for Squaw Valley, Sugar Bowl, Kirkwood and Mammoth at 50, 55, 42, and 11 inches with about 10 inches on 4/11 and then rest 4/13-4/14. This still seems improbable.
Freezing level 12,000 ft till 4/9 then steadily falling to 4.000 ft late on 4/11 and down to 1,000 ft on 4/12. A rebuild 4/13 pushing to 9.000 ft on 4/15.
Tioga Pass/Pacific Crest Trail intersection forecast: Temps - Freeze Level (more here - scroll down to 'Resort Snow Forecasts>Central CA or North CA Caltrans & Backcountry')
Snow Models: http://www.stormsurf.com/mdls/menu_snow.html (Scroll down for resort specific forecasts). Updated!
Small swell from a gale previously under New Zealand is supposedly hitting Southern CA (see Background Swell below). And small swell from a gale that followed southeast of New Zealand is radiating north towards Hawaii and CA (see Small New Zealand Gale below).
Over the next 72 hours a new system is to start building east of New Zealand on Sat PM (4/9) generating 35-40 kts southwest winds with seas building from 25 ft at 50S 174W aimed northeast. On Sun AM (4/10) with 35 kt southwest winds are to push east with seas building from 25 ft at 47S 167W aimed northeast. In the evening fetch is to be pushing east at 30-40 kts with 26 ft seas at 47.5S 160W aimed northeast. On Mon AM (4/11) the gale is to fade some but still with 40 kt southwest winds and seas 24 ft at 47S 143W aimed east. In the evening fetch is to be fading from 35-40 kts from the west with seas 28 ft over a small area at 50S 142W. The gale to fade from there. Something to monitor.
Background New Zealand Swell
A gale developed south of New Zealand on Fri PM (4/1) producing 40-45 kt southwest winds with seas building to 28 ft at 60S 172E aimed northeast. On Sat AM (4/2) 40 kts southwest winds continued with seas barely 30 ft at 60S 177W aimed northeast. in the evening fetch faded from 35-40 kts with seas fading from 27 ft at 60S 168W aimed northeast. Background swell is to be pushing into Southern CA.
Southern CA: Swell fading on Sat (4/9) from 2.0 ft @ 14 secs (2.5-3.0 ft). Dribbles on Sun (4/10) fading from 1.8 ft @ 13 secs (2.0-2.5 ft). Swell Direction: 190 degrees
Small New Zealand Gale
On Sun PM (4/3) a gale developed south of New Zealand producing 35-40 kt west-southwest winds and seas 26 ft at 59S 176.5E aimed east-northeast. On Mon AM (4/4) 35-40 kt southwest winds were building in coverage with seas 29 ft at 54.5S 168.5W aimed northeast. In the evening a solid fetch of 30-40 kt southwest winds were over the Central South Pacific with seas 29 ft at 51.25S 151.25W aimed northeast. On Tues AM (4/5) fetch was 30-40 kts from the southwest over the Southeast Pacific with seas 27 ft at 48.25S 137.5W aimed northeast. In the evening 30-35 kt west winds were tracking east with seas 25 ft at 55.5S 142.25W aimed east-northeast. Fetch held Wed AM (4/6) over the Southeastern Pacific from the southwest at 35-45 kts with seas to 27 ft at 52.25S 132W aimed east-northeast. Fetch was fading in the evening from 40 kts from the west over the far Southeast Pacific with seas 31 ft at 58S 122.5W aimed northeast. Fetch and seas dissipated from there while moving east of the California swell window. Small early season swell is radiating northeast.
Hawaii: Expect swell arrival on Sat (4/9) with swell building to 1.4 ft @ 17 secs later (2.0-2.5 ft). On Sun (4/10) expect swell building through the day to 1.8 ft @ 15-16 secs later (2.5-3.0 ft). Swell fading Mon (4/11) from 1.5 ft @ 14-15 secs early (2.0 ft). Swell Direction: 190 moving to 185 degrees
Southern CA: Expect swell arrival on Mon (4/11) building to 1.0 ft @ 17-18 secs later (1.5 ft). Swell to build on Tues (4/12) to 1.6 ft @ 16-17 secs later (2.5 ft). Swell continues on Wed (4/13) building to 1.9 ft @ 16 secs later (3.0 ft). Swell steady on Thurs (4/14) at 2.0 ft @ 15 secs (3.0 ft). Swell fading on Fri (4/15) from 1.8 ft @ 14-15 secs early (2.5 ft). Residuals on Sat (4/16) fading from 1.5 ft @ 14 secs (2.0 ft). Swell Direction: 198 degrees
North CA: Expect swell arrival on Mon (4/11) building to 0.75 ft @ 18 secs later (1.0-1.5 ft). Swell to build on Tues (4/12) to 1.2 ft @ 17 secs later (2.0 ft). Swell continues on Wed (4/13) building to 1.7 ft @ 16-17 secs later (2.5-3.0 ft). Swell steady on Thurs (4/14) at 2.0 ft @ 15-16 secs (3.0 ft). Swell fading on Fri (4/15) from 1.9 ft @ 14-15 secs early (2.5-3.0 ft). Residuals on Sat (4/16) fading from 1.6 ft @ 14 secs (2.0-2.5 ft). Swell Direction: 196-197 degrees
South Pacific Animations: Jetstream - Surface Pressure/Wind - Sea Height - Surf Height
Marine weather and forecast conditions 3-10 days into the future
Beyond 72 hours no swell producing weather systems of interest are forecast.
Beyond 72 hours no swell producing weather systems of interest are forecast.
La Nina Weakening - Kelvin Wave Erupting - No Warm Water Behind
Summary - Cool subsurface water volume peaked under the equatorial Pacific on 10/15/21 and is now fading. A stronger than expected Active Phase of the MJO in Dec produced a Kelvin Wave that is erupting over the Galapagos with water temps on the rise there, but still solidly in La Nina territory over the Central Pacific. A much hoped for Active Phase of the MJO (and westerly anomalies) previously delayed is developing. It seemed the peak of La Nina was behind us. But a 3rd year of La Nina is projected by the CFS model, though that is not certain. Much steady west anomalies are forecast from here forward. The outlook is unclear but seems biased towards another year of La Nina.
The Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a periodic weather cycle that tracks east along the equator circumnavigating the globe. It is characterized in it's Inactive Phase by enhanced trade winds and dry weather over the part of the equator it is in control of, and in it's Active Phase by slackening if not an outright reversing trade winds while enhancing precipitation. The oscillation occurs in roughly 20-30 day cycles (Inactive for 20-30 days, then Active for 20-30 days) over any single location on the planet, though most noticeable in the Pacific. During the Active Phase in the Pacific the MJO tends to support the formation of stronger and longer lasting gales resulting in enhanced potential for the formation of swell producing storms. Prolonged and consecutive Active MJO Phases in the Pacific help support the formation of El Nino. During the Inactive Phase the jet stream tends to split resulting in high pressure and less potential for swell producing storm development. Wind anomalies in the Kelvin Wave Generation Area (KWGA) are key for understanding what Phase the MJO is in over the Pacific. The KWGA is located on the equator from 135E-170W and 5 degs north and south (or on the equator from New Guinea east to the dateline). West wind anomalies in the KWGA suggest the Active Phase of the MJO in the Pacific, and east anomalies suggests the Inactive Phase. In turn the Active Phase strengthens and the Inactive Phase weakens the jetstream, which in turn enhances or dampens storm production respectively in the Pacific.And the El Nino/La Nino cycle (collectively know as ENSO - El Nino Southern Oscillation) is a less frequent (about once every 7 years) but more impactful cycle that affects world wide weather. Specifically, strong El Nino events promote storm production in the Pacific while La Nina events suppress storm production. These therefore have a significant impact on the production of swell and surf. The paragraphs below analyze the state of the MJO and ENSO in the Pacific and provide forecasts for upcoming activity (or inactivity depending on the state and interaction of these two oscillations).
Overview: In 2019 warm equatorial waters were fading, and by August a tongue of cool water was tracking west on the equator from Ecuador over the Galapagos reaching to a point nearly south of Hawaii. A bit of a recovery tried to occur during Fall of 2019, with weak warm water building in the Nino 1.2 region, but cool water held in a pool off Peru. By April 2020 a cool pool was starting to build, forming a well defined cool tongue that evolved into La Nina, with it fully developing through July 2020. A slow dissolving of La Nina started in March 2021 with 2 Kelvin Waves sweeping east and arriving over the Galapagos in June. Weak warming set up over the equator with no cool waters present. NOAA declared La Nina dead. But cold water returned in July 2021 and a second pulse of La Nina developed and is continuing today, though possibly weaker with its foundation appearing to be in decline.
LONG-RANGE PACIFIC STORM AND SWELL GENERATION POTENTIAL FORECAST
Fall /Winter 2021-2022 = 1.5 (California & Hawaii)
Rating based on a 1-10 scale: 1 being the lowest (small and infrequent surf conditions), 5 being normal/average, and 10 being extraordinary (frequent events of large, long period swells)
Rationale: It was assumed that the moderate La Nina from the Winter of 2020/2021 was on the wane and that a return to neutral ENSO state would set up over the Pacific Basin through the summer of 2021. But La Nina made a strong return by the end of Sept much like what the CFS model suggested would happen. A full double dip La Nina pattern took hold as we moved into November with this second La Nina dip being nearly as strong as the previous one. But a quick fade is forecast as we move into late December with the CFS predicting a return to a neutral wind anomaly pattern at that time and the low pressure bias making headway in to the KWGA in early Jan. Still it will take some time for the atmosphere to fully respond, resulting in a less than normal swell production forecast especially for Fall into early Winter. But by later in Feb 2022 perhaps a return to a more normal pattern might take hold. But it will be too little too late. As a result a significantly reduced number of storm days and storm intensity is expected Oct-Feb 2022, resulting in a below normal level of swells, with swell being below normal duration and period. But by March 2022, the number of storm days, intensity and duration of those storms should start improving as La Nina fades out. The status of the PDO is not known, though it appears to be returning to at least a neutral state, rather than the warm phase as previously projected thereby having no significant positive or negative effect on the long term outlook.
KWGA/Equatorial Surface Wind Analysis (KWGA - Kelvin Wave Generation Area - The area 5 degrees north and south of the equator from 170W to 135E)
Analysis (TAO Buoys): As of (4/8) 5 day average winds were strong from the east over the Eastern equatorial Pacific and strong east over the Central Pacific and moderate to strong east over the KWGA. Anomalies were neutral to light east over the East equatorial Pacific and modest east over the Central Pacific and moderate east over the KWGA. (Note: These are 5 day average winds, versus realtime, so they lag what is happening today (by about 2.5 days).
1 Week Forecast (GFS Model): On (4/9) west anomalies were moderate to strong filling the West KWGA to 150E with moderate to strong east anomalies over the dateline. The 7 day forecast calls for moderate west anomalies backtracking and losing coverage on 4/11 falling back to 135WE and then holding position and strength through the end of the model run on 4/16 with modest east anomalies taking over the balance of the KWGA then starting to track east the last day of the model run with weak west anomalies developing on the dateline.
Kelvin Wave Generation Area wind monitoring model: West and East
- MJO/WWB/Wind Projections:
OLR Models: (4/8) A neutral MJO signal biased weakly Active was indicated today in the KWGA. The statistical model indicates no change through day 10 of the model run then turning purely neutral on day 15. The dynamic model projects a weak Active Phase building some on day 10 in the KWGA and filling the KWGA then weakening some on day 15. The 2 models are mostly in sync.
Phase Diagrams 2 week forecast (ECMF and GEFS): (4/9) The statistical model depicts the Active Phase was very weak over the East Maritime Continent and is forecast to track east to the East Pacific and weak for the next 2 weeks. The dynamic model suggests the same thing.
40 day Upper Level Model (assumed to be a statistical mode and 1 week ahead of what is occurring at the surface): (4/8) A moderate Active MJO signal (wet air) was over the West Pacific today. The forecast depicts the Active Phase (wet air) moving east while slowly fading moving to the Central Pacific and into Central America on 4/28. The Inactive Phase is to follow moving over the KWGA on 4/23 and modest, tracking east and over the East equatorial Pacific and into Central America on 5/13. A neutral or very weak Active Phase (wet air) is to take over the West Pacific on 5/3 pushing east to the East Pacific at the end of the model run on 5/16.
4 Week CFS Model (850 mb wind): (4/8) A solid Active signal was moving over the KWGA today with west anomalies filling the KWGA west of the dateline at moderate strength but east anomalies over the dateline to 150E. The forecast has west anomalies holding over the KWGA through 4/22 with east anomalies holding solid on the dateline through 4/12 then fading and gone on 4/15. The Active Phase is to push east of the KWGA on 4/23 while building with solid west anomalies over the East Pacific 4/11-5/6 but of no use to anyone. East anomalies are to take over the KWGA starting 4/20 as the Inactive Phase of the MJO pushes east over the KWGA starting 4/25 and holding through the end of the model run on 5/6 with east anomalies building to strong status on 4/30.
3 Month CFS Model (850 mb wind): (4/9 - using the 5th ensemble member - the mean of the 4 individual members which are all from the 00Z run - 1 run per day):
Today the Active Phase of the MJO was pushing east filling the KWGA except with a pocket of east anomalies on the dateline. The forecast depicts the Active Phase continuing pushing over the KWGA through 5/1 with west anomalies finally filling the entirety of the KWGA starting 4/14. A weak Inactive MJO signal is to follow starting 4/25 in the west holding through 6/14 with west anomalies fading some but still filling the entirety of the KWGA. The Active Phase is to reappear on 6/4 filling the KWGA through the end of the model run on 7/7 with west anomalies building and filling the KWGA up to the dateline. The low pass filter indicates a high pressure bias with 2 contour lines was centered east of the dateline at 150W with its western perimeter at 170E today and forecast slowly easing east and pushing east to the dateline 6/10 with the second contour fading away on 6/22. A broad single contour low pressure bias is established centered over the Maritime Continent at 110E with it's leading edge at 150E filling half the KWGA and is forecast moving slowly but steadily east from now on reaching 170E on 5/17. Of note, the leading edge of the low pressure bias has been stalled at 150E since 1/31, but finally started moving east on 3/25 and is still doing that today. Something to monitor. Today a solid east anomaly pattern that had been in control of KWGA since early July 2021 is done. And today's run of the model now suggests those east anomalies are to recenter themselves at 135W starting 4/29 and holding for the foreseeable future. All this suggest the full demise of La Nina if this occurs as forecast. That said, there is only one more Active MJO forecast for this winter, and we're in it now meaning only one more shot at support for some sort of gale/swell production.And that even looks unlikely. The model had been constantly shifting the arrival of the low pressure bias into the KWGA almost daily but that seems to not be the case lately. So the future remains uncertain but cautiously optimistic. The demise of La Nina all hinges on the eastward progress of the low pressure bias.
CFSv2 3 month forecast for 850 mb winds, MJO, Rossby etc - Alternate link
Subsurface Waters Temps
TAO Array: (4/9) Today in the far West Pacific the 29 degree isotherm was gone. The 28 deg isotherm line was backtracking to 172E. The 24 deg isotherm was steady across the East Pacific. Anomaly wise, warm anomalies +3 deg C were in a pocket in the far West Pacific down 150m with it's leading edge easing east to 155W with a previous Kelvin Wave in the East Pacific at +1C down 25m centered at 105W pushing east and fading. A broad area of -2C cool anomalies were in between the two centered at 135W. The hi-res GODAS animation posted 4/3 indicates the same pocket of cool anomalies between 155W-120W at -5 degs C and appears to be now be shrinking in coverage and intensity while the remnants of the Kelvin Wave in the east fade. And perhaps a new Kelvin Wave is starting to push east from the West Pacific with its leading edge at 155W. The GODAS animation appears to be 1 week behind the TAO data but also is more detailed and accurately modeled.
Sea Level Anomalies: (4/3) Sea heights were rising some over the Equatorial Pacific. A string of weakly positive anomaly pockets were north of the equator pushing from the dateline into the Galapagos along the 5N latitude line. And a broad pocket of negative anomalies over the equator between 155W to 90W previously at -15 cms was now -10 cms centered at 140W an losing coverage. Otherwise positive anomalies were mostly locked west of the dateline. Per the Upper Ocean Heat Anomaly Histogram the previous Kelvin Wave was fading at 80W-86W with cool anomalies fading from -1.5 degs between 120W-160W. And it almost looks like a Kelvin Wave is trying to push east from 165W. It is unknown whether cool anomalies will return in earnest moving forward or whether another Kelvin Wave is developing.
Surface Water Temps
The more warm water in the equatorial East Pacific means more storm production in the North Pacific during winter months (roughly speaking). Cold water in that area has a dampening effect. Regardless of what the atmospheric models and surface winds suggest, actual water temperatures are a ground-truth indicator of what is occurring in the ocean. All data is from blended infrared and microwave sensors.
Hi-res Nino1.2 & 3.4 Qualitative Analysis: (4/8) The latest images depict a broad generic pool of cool water on the equator extending west from 135W dissipating on the dateline. Warming waters were building from Ecuador west beyond the Galapagos to 135W. A broad pocket of cool water was off the coast of Peru starting at 95W extending west and reaching up to the equator out at 135W continuing to the dateline. An area of warm water was holding just north of the equator across the entire North Pacific. Overall this indicates the late stages of La Nina.
Hi-res 7 day Trend (4/8): Two small pockets of cooling were present between Ecuador west to 100W on the equator. Otherwise a neutral trend was occurring.
Hi-res Overview: (4/8) The deep cold core of the La Nina cool pool is gone. Residual cool waters were covering a large area starting at 120W to 160E on the equator and from 90W off South America down at 20S. Warmer than normal waters were aligned from 3N and above over the entire North Pacific. La Nina is solid but appears to be fading focused over the equatorial Central Pacific.
Nino1.2 Daily CDAS Index Temps: (4/9) Today's temps was -0.417 and fading the past 14 days after peaking at +0.760 on 3/18. Temps had been moving upwards since 2/20, and beat a previous high of -0.650 degs on 1/9 and that after being down at -1.871 on 1/3 and -1.954 on 12/18, the lowest this year so far. Previously temps dropped on 11/24 at -1.700, the lowest in months after previously toggling steady at about -0.6 degs from mid Aug to Oct 6, then falling from there. Last year temps bottomed out at -2.138 on 8/13/20. The longterm trend has been steadily downward.
Nino 3.4 Daily CDAS Index Temps: (4/9) Today's temps were steady at -0.777 after rising to -0.704 on 3/27 and had been on a gentle rising trend since falling to -1.012 on 3/8. Previously temp were rising slightly to -0.505 on 2/2 and that after reaching a peak low of -1.096 on 1/3 beating the previous low of -1.080 on 11/2, the lowest in a year. Prior to that temps had been in a freefall starting from the -0.175 range in early Sept. Before that temps peaked up at 7/1 +0.332, the highest in a year. Temps previously had been steady near -0.222 since early March. Temps bottomed out at -1.654 on 11/3/2020.
CFSV2 Forecast for Nino3.4 Sea Surface Temp (SST) Anomalies & Current SST Anomalies
SST Anomaly Projections
CFSv2 Uncorrected Data
Previous - Temps rose in early Nov 2020 after bottoming out at -1.25 degs, up to -0.01 degs in mid-June 2021 then fading to -1.05 degs in mid-Nov then rebuilding to -0.7 in mid Feb 2022 then fading some after that.
Forecast (4/9) - Temps are to continue falling to -1.40 degs in early May and then slowly rising to about -1.00 degs in July more or less holding there into Dec, then rising more directly beyond. This model suggests we are at going to fall into a third year of La Nina. The PDF Corrected forecast suggests temps falling to -1.10 degs in May then rising to about -0.75 degs in July then slowly falling to -0.90 degs in Nov. Still, neither of these forecasts are consistent with the IRI forecast (see IRI Consensus forecast below).
IRI Consensus Plume: The March 18, 2022 Plume depicts temps are -0.738 degs today and have bottomed out. They are to warm to -0.315 degrees in May, then rising to -0.287 degs in July and hovering there through Sept then rising to near 0,0 degs after that. A return to ENSO neutral is expected this summer. Still, this latest update is cooler and slower in returning to normal than the previous forecast.
See chart here - link.
Atmospheric Coupling (Indicating the presence of El Nino in the atmosphere driven by the ocean):
Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) (negative is good, positive bad - this is a lagging indicator):
Today (4/7) the daily index was positive at +24.30 after peaking at +31.80 on 4/6, +27.33 on 1/31/22 and +46.71 on 12/26. The trend of late has been solidly positive. Previous other notable peaks were +30.98 on 11/26, +36.90 on 9/28, +27.75 on 9/13 and +37.86 on 7/15.
The 30 day average was rising some at +12.46 down some from the highest in a year on 3/27 at + 13.46, after falling to +0.83 on 1/27 then peaking at +13.07 on 12/31 after previously falling to +6.06 on 11/6 after peaking at +11.58 on 10/22. Before that it fell to -3.36 on 6/22, the lowest in a year. It peaked at +19.51 on 1/14.
The 90 day average was rising some at +9.52 today after previously peaking at +9.36 on 3/22 and +10.90 on 12/26, falling to +7.10 on 11/1. It previously peaking on 9/21 at +9.80 after falling to it's lowest point in a year on 6/9 at +1.06. The 90 day average peaked at +15.75 on 2/23 (clearly indicative of La Nina then). This index is a lagging indicator but suggest La Nina is returning.
Pacific Decadal Oscillation
The PDO theoretically turned from a 16 year negative run (Jan 98-Feb 2014) in early 2014 and was positive till Dec 2019, but has been negative ever since, driven by recent La Nina conditions. In May-July 2021 it was the most negative its been in the -1.80 to -2.04 range since Sept 2012 (-2.99) and then fell to -3.16 in Oct 2021 (the lowest since July 1933) then settled at -2.72 in Nov and Dec 2021. Looking at the long term record, it seems likely we are still in the Cool Phase of the PDO (La Nina 'like') with no signs of moving to the positive/warm phase (El Nino 'like').
See imagery in the ENSO Powertool
Stormsurf Video Surf Forecast for this week. See it Here
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NBC News - Climate Change and Surfing: https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/science/climate-change-good-surfing-other-sports-not-so-much-ncna1017131
Mavericks & Stormsurf on HBO Sports with Bryant Gumbel https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=luQSYf5sKjQ
Pieces Featuring Stormsurf:
Time Zone Converter By popular demand we've built and easy to use time convert that transposes GMT time to whatever time zone you are located. It's ion left hand column on every page on the site near the link to the swell calculator.
Surf Height-Swell Height Correlation Table