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Pacific Storm and Surf Forecast
Updated: Tuesday, November 1, 2022 1:52 PM
Buoys: Northern CA - Southern CA - Hawaii - Gulf of Alaska - Pacific Northwest
Buoy Forecast:
Northern CA - Southern CA - Hawaii - Gulf of Alaska - Pacific Northwest
Pacific Links:  Atmospheric Models - Buoy Data - Current Weather - Wave Models
Forecast Archives: Enter Here
A chronology of recent Mavericks Underground forecasts. Once you enter, just click on the HTML file forecast you want to review (e.g. 073199.html equals July 31, 1999). To view the maps that correspond to that forecast date, select the html file labeled 073199 maps.html
2.7 - California & 1.1 - Hawaii
Using the 'Winter' Scale
(See Swell Category Table link at bottom of page)

Probability for presence of largest swells in near-shore waters of NCal, SCal or Hawaii.    

Issued for Week of Monday 10/31 thru Sun 11/6

Swell Potential Rating Categories
5 = Good probability for 3 or more days of Significant swell
4 = Good probability for 1-2 days of Significant swell
3 = Good probability for 3 or more days of Intermediate/Advanced swell
2 = Good probability for  1-2 days of
Intermediate/Advanced swell
1 = Good probability for 3 or more days of Impulse or Windswell
0 = Low probability for 1-2 days of Impulse or Windswell   

Gulf Swell Fading In NCal
Weak West Pacific Gale Developing


Tuesday, November 1, 2022 :

  • Buoy 238 (Barbers Pt)/Buoy 239 (Lani): Seas were 2.9 ft @ 11.8 secs with swell 1.8 ft @ 11.6 secs from 186 degrees. Water temp 81.1 degs (Barbers Pt), 80.2 (Pearl Harbor 233), 80.8 (Lani 239).
  • Buoy 106 (Waimea): Seas were 4.5 ft @ 6.2 secs with swell 3.6 ft @ 6.4 secs from 32 degrees. Water temp 80.6 degs.
  • Buoy 46025 (Catalina RDG): Seas were 2.9 ft @ 15.9 secs with swell 1.3 ft @ 15.4 secs from 281 degrees. Wind west at 2-4 kts. Water temperature 65.8 degs, 65.1 (Topanga 103), 65.3 degs (Long Beach 215), 68.0 (Oceanside Offshore 045), 67.1 (Del Mar 153), 69.1 (Torrey Pines Outer 100). At Harvest Buoy (071) primary swell was 8.3 ft @ 15.7 secs from 316 degrees. At Santa Monica (028) swell was 1.3 ft @ 15.1 secs from 238 degrees. At Oceanside (045) swell was 1.4 ft @ 15.5 secs from 215 degrees. Southward at Pt Loma (191) swell was 1.9 ft @ 17.1 secs from 255 degrees. Water temperate was 68.5 degrees.
  • Buoy 46012 (Half Moon Bay)/029 (Pt Reyes): Seas were 9.2 ft @ 15.9 secs with swell 8.3 ft @ 14.2 secs from 307 degrees. Wind northwest at 12-18 kts. Water temp 52.0 (Bodega Bay 46013), 51.8 degs (Pt Reyes 029), 53.1 (46026), 56.5 (SF Bar 142), 55.8 (Pt Santa Cruz 254) and 56.1 (Monterey Bay 46042).

See Hi-Res Buoy Dashboards (bottom of the page)

Swell Classification Guidelines

Significant: Winter - Swell 8 ft @ 14 secs or greater (11+ ft faces) for 8+ hours (greater than double overhead).
- Head high or better.
Advanced: Winter - Swell and period combination capable of generating faces 1.5 times overhead to double overhead (7-10 ft)
Summer - Chest to head high.
Intermediate/Utility Class: Winter - Swell and period combination generating faces at head high to 1.5 times overhead (4-7 ft).
- Waist to chest high.
Impulse/Windswell: Winter - Swell and period combination generating faces up to head high (1-4 ft) or anything with a period less than 11 secs.
- up to waist high swell. Also called 'Background' swell.

Surf Heights for Hawaii should be consider 'Hawaiian Scale' if period exceeds 14 secs.

Current Conditions
On Tuesday (11/1) North and Central CA was getting swell from the Northwestern Gulf at 3 feet overhead and lined up and powerful but warbled if not chopped from south wind early. Protected breaks were 1-2 ft overhead and lined up and mostly closed out and fairly clean with south wind in control early. At Santa Cruz surf was 1-2 ft overhead on the sets and lined up and fairly clean. In Southern California/Ventura waves were up to shoulder high and lined up with decent form and clean with light northeast winds early. Central Orange County was flat to thigh high and nearly chopped from brisk south wind. South Orange County's best summertime breaks had sets at maybe waist high and soft coming from the north and lined up and heavily warbled. North San Diego had sets at maybe waist high and lined up and soft but pretty warbled from south wind early. Hawaii's North Shore had a few waist high sets and clean and weak. The South Shore was getting southern hemi swell with rare sets at chest high and lined up and clean. The East Shore was getting east windswell at waist high and chopped from moderate east trades.

See QuikCASTs for the 5 day surf overview or read below for the detailed view.

Meteorological Overview
On Tuesday (11/1) exposed breaks in California were getting swell from a gale that developed while tracking east from the Northwestern Gulf on Sat-Sun (10/30) with 38-41 ft seas aimed east. But this system was well east of the Hawaii swell window. A small gale is developing off the Kuril Islands and is forecast approaching the dateline Mon-Wed (11/2) producing 29 ft seas aimed mostly south and dissipating before reaching the dateline. Beyond another gale is forecast developing in the Northeastern Gulf falling southeast to a point of North CA Fri-Mon (11/7) producing 27 ft seas close to the coast. But the clear signal is that high pressure is to continue locking down the Gulf of Alaska and therefore blocking the main storm track.

See all the details below...


Current marine weather and wave analysis plus forecast conditions for the next 72 hours

North Pacific

On Tuesday (11/1) the jetstream was pushing east off Japan with winds 140 kts forming a bit of a trough there supportive of gale development then ridging hard north just west of the dateline tracking over the Eastern Aleutians before falling forming a tight trough pushing south over North CA and offering only limited support for gale development but supporting weather production. Over the next 72 hours the trough over the US West Coast is to push inland on Wed (11/2) near Pt Conception with weather continuing in that area. The jet in the west is to split over Japan later Wed (11/2) stealing energy from the trough west of the dateline offering less support for gale development and the jet totally split over the Northwest Pacific on Fri (11/4). At that time the ridge previously over the Gulf of Alaska is to be starting to push into the US West Coast. Beyond 72 hours starting Sat (11/5) the split jet is to track east over the dateline with the jet consolidating over the Northern Gulf with winds building to 190 kts and starting to fall hard south forming a new trough with that trough pushing over North CA late Sun (11/6) and then moving inland over Central CA late Mon (11/7) offering some support for gale development but more so weather production for the US West Coast. On Tues (11/8) the jet is to be weakly split off Japan with winds 120 kts in pockets with no trough forecast tracking east the whole way into Central CA offering no support for gale development but better positioned that anytime so far this Fall.

Surface Analysis
On Tuesday (11/1) swell from a gale previously over the
Northwestern Gulf was impacting California (see Another Northwestern Gulf Gale below).

And on Mon AM (10/31) a gale developed off North Japan producing north winds at 45 kts and seas 26 ft at 42N 161E aimed south. On the evening north fetch continued at 40-45 kts easing east with seas 27 ft at 43N 166E aimed south. North fetch to continue Tues AM (11/1) at 40 kts with seas 29 ft at 41N 166.5E aimed south. Fetch fading some in the evening at 35-40 kts from the north with seas 27 ft at 39N 165.5E aimed south. Fetch fading Wed AM (11/2) from 35 kts mainly from the northeast with seas 23 ft at 38N 169.25E aimed south. The gale to stall Thurs AM (11/3) over the dateline producing a small area of north winds at 35-40 kts aimed south with seas 23 ft at 37.25N 175.5E building on Fri AM (11/4) to 24 ft at 39N 180W still aimed south then gone on Sat AM (11/5). Low odds of sideband swell reaching the Hawaiian Islands.

Oahu: Sideband background swell expected on Fri (11/4) at 1.4 ft @ 13-14 secs later (1.5-2.0 ft). Swell continues Sat (11/5) at 1.4 ft @ 12 secs (1.5 ft). Swell building slightly on Sun (11/6) at 1.7 ft @ 12 secs (2.0 ft). Swell gone after that. Swell Direction: 305-310 degrees


Another Northwestern Gulf Gale
A new gale developed just south of the Aleutian Islands over the North Dateline region on Fri PM (10/28) with 55 kt northwest winds partially exposed south of the Eastern Aleutians and seas building from 30 ft over a small area at 53.25N 170.25W aimed east. On Sat AM (10/29) the gale was tracking over the Northwestern Gulf with 45 kt west winds totally clear of land with seas 38 ft at 51.5N 157.5W aimed east (311 degs NCal). In the evening the storm was tracking east into the Northern Gulf with 45-50 kt west winds and seas 35 ft at 52.5N 146.75W aimed east (318 degs NCal). The storm was tracking east on Sun AM (10/30) in the Northern Gulf with 40-45 kt west winds and seas 41 ft at 54.75N 138.75W aimed east (328+ degs NCal and totally shadowed). The gale to move inland over Central Canada after that. Something to monitor.

North CA: Swell continues Tues AM (11/1) fading from 5.9 ft @ 15 secs early (8.5 ft). Swell continues on Wed AM (11/2) at 5.6 ft @ 13 secs (7.0 ft). Swell fading Thurs AM (11/3) from 4.8 ft @ 12 secs (5.5 ft). Dribbles on Fri (11/4) fading from 4.5 ft @ 10-11 secs early (4.5 ft). Swell Direction 310-315+ degrees


North Pacific Animations: Jetstream - Surface Pressure/Wind - Sea Height - Surf Height


Tropical Update
No tropical systems of interest are being monitored at this time.

California Nearshore Forecast

  • Wed AM (11/2) northwest winds are forecast at 10 kts for North and Central CA early. In the afternoon northwest winds are forecast at 10-15 kts for North CA and Central CA. Light rain along the coast for North CA down to Santa Cruz early and possibly building south to Morro Bay through the day. Light rain early for Southern CA. Steady modest snow for Tahoe early building south over the Sierra through the day.
  • Thurs AM (11/3) northwest winds are forecast at 15 kts for North CA and 20 kts for Central CA early. In the afternoon northwest winds are forecast at 15 kts for North CA and 20-25 kts for Central CA. No precip forecast.
  • Fri AM (11/4) northwest winds are forecast at 10-15 kts for all of North and Central CA early fading to 10 kts in the afternoon.
  • Sat AM (11/5) northwest winds are forecast at 10 kts early for all of North and Central CA and building to 15 kts for the area north of Bodega Bay and 10 kts south of there to Monterey Bay and 20 kts south of there in the afternoon. A front is to be developing over the Oregon-CA border. Rain developing early for Cape Mendocino reaching Pt Arena in the afternoon the dissolving.
  • Sun AM (11/6) low pressure is to be circulating just of Washington and falling south with a front over Cape Mendocino early with northwest winds are forecast at 10 kts for North CA early and 15 kts for Central CA. In the afternoon west to southwest winds are forecast at 20 kts for North CA and northwest 10-15 kts for Central CA. Rain possible for Cape Mendocino early building down to the Golden Gate in the evening. Heavy snow developing for higher elevations of North Ca later.
  • Mon AM (11/7) low pressure is to be circulating just off the Oregon and falling south with a front pushing south and west winds 10-15 kts early for all of North and Central CA. In the afternoon winds to turn northwest at 10 kts for North CA and 15-20 kts for Central CA. Rain for all of North and Central CA early building over all of Southern CA late AM and continuing all location all day. Heavy snow sweeping south over the Sierra through the day
  • Tues AM (11/8) the low starts fading off Oregon with northwest winds 10 kts for North and Central CA. Rain continues from Pt Conception northward mainly along the coast early. Modest snow continues mainly from Yosemite northward.

Total snow accumulation for the next 10 days respectively for Squaw Valley, Sugar Bowl, Kirkwood and Mammoth are projected at 70, 78, 66, and 23 inches on Tues- Wed (11/1-2) then again Mon-Wed (11/7-9).

Freezing level for Lake Tahoe is falling to 2,000 ft on 11/2 then rising to 12,000 ft 11/4-5, then falling to 4,000 ft 11/6-11/8 before rising to 8.000 ft beyond. It looks like fall is starting in earnest.

- - -

Tioga Pass/Pacific Crest Trail intersection forecast: Temps - Freeze Level
More locations here (scroll down to 'Resort Snow Forecasts>Central CA or North CA Caltrans & Backcountry')

Snow Models: (Scroll down for Resort specific forecasts).


South Pacific

Surface Analysis
No swell is hitting or poised to hit California or Hawaii in the next few days.

Over the next 72 hours swell from a gale previously over the South Central Pacific is to be propagating northeast (see Central South Pacific Gale below).


Central South Pacific Gale
A gale developed over the Central South Pacific Thurs AM (10/27) producing 35 kt southwest winds and seas building from 26 ft at 53.5N 170.75W aimed northeast. In the evening 30-35 kt southwest winds held with seas 26 ft at 51S 160.25W aimed northeast. On Fri AM (10/28) southwest winds held at 30-35 kts over a solid area with seas 26 ft at 49.25S 155.25W aimed northeast. More of the same in the evening with seas building to 27 ft at 52S 147.75W aimed northeast. On Sat AM (10/29) fetch was fading from 30-35 kts over a shrinking area with seas 25 ft at 50S 144W aimed northeast. The gale dissipated from there. Possible small swell to result for Hawaii and California. Will monitor.

Hawaii: Expect swell arrival on Wed (11/2) building to 1.3 ft @ 16 secs late (2.0 ft). Swell building Thurs (11/3) to 1.7 ft @ 15-16 secs early (2.5 ft). Swell fading some on Fri (11/4) from 1.8 ft @ 13-14 secs (2.0-2.5 ft). Residuals on Sat (11/5) fading from 1.5 ft @ 13-14 secs early (2.0 ft). Dribbles on Sun (11/6) fading from 1.2 ft @ 12-13 secs (1.5 ft). Swell Direction: 187 degrees

Southern CA: Expect swell arrival on on Sat (11/5) building to 1.8 ft @ 16-17 secs later (2.5 ft). Swell builds some Sun (11/6) later AM to 1.9 ft @ 15-16 secs (2.5-3.0 ft). Swell fading Mon AM (11/7) from 1.8 ft @ 14-15 secs (2.5 ft). Residuals on Tues AM (11/8) fading from 1.6 ft @ 13-14 secs (2.0 ft). Swell Direction: 202 moving to 198 degrees

North CA: Expect swell arrival on on Sat (11/5) building to 1.5 ft @ 16-17 secs later (2.5 ft). Swell builds some Sun (11/6) later AM to 1.9 ft @ 15-16 secs (2.5-3.0 ft). Swell fading Mon AM (11/7) from 1.8 ft @ 14-15 secs (2.5 ft). Residuals on Tues AM (11/8) fading from 1.6 ft @ 13-14 secs (2.0 ft). Swell Direction: 200 moving to 196 degrees. This swell likely to be buried in northerly swell.


South Pacific Animations: Jetstream - Surface Pressure/Wind - Sea Height - Surf Height




Marine weather and forecast conditions 3-10 days into the future

North Pacific

Beyond 72 hours a small fetch is to develop in the Northern Gulf Fri AM (11/4) producing northwest winds at 40 kts with seas building. In the evening northwest winds to build to 40 kts with seas 27 ft at 54.75N 143.25W aimed southeast. Fetch is to build in coverage Sat AM (11/5) at 35 kts with 29 ft seas at 52.5N 134.75W aimed southeast and totally shadowed relative to North CA. In the evening new fetch is to build at 40 kts aimed southeast with seas 26 ft at 50N 143W aimed southeast. On Sun AM (11/6) north winds are to be 35+ kts off Washington with seas 28 ft at 44N 134W aimed south. More of the same in the evening with seas 27 ft at 43N 133W aimed southeast. Fetch fading Mon AM (11/7) off Cape Mendocino from 30-35 kts with seas 25 ft at 41.75N 132,25W aimed southeast. In the evening the gale is to be fading out with seas fading from 21 ft at 37.75N 128.5W or just off San Francisco. Larger very raw and windblown swell is possible for North and Central CA.


South Pacific

Beyond 72 hours no swell producing fetch of interest is forecast. Summer is over.


MJO/ENSO Forecast


Upwelling Phase Still Underway
West Anomalies to Own the Dateline Region 11/10 and Beyond
Cool subsurface water volume peaked under the equatorial Pacific on 10/15/21, faded in May and June 2022, but rebuilt in late July and is holding today. La Nina conditions are in control oceanically both subsurface and on the surface. But, the model suggest atmospherically anomalous Westerly Winds are starting to develop in the KWGA and are to take root 2 weeks out, with La Nina collapsing near Christmas and water temps rising beyond. The outlook is turning cautiously optimistic.

MJO/ENSO Discussion
The Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a periodic weather cycle that tracks east along the equator circumnavigating the globe. It is characterized in it's Inactive Phase by enhanced trade winds and dry weather over the part of the equator it is in control of, and in it's Active Phase by slackening if not an outright reversing trade winds while enhancing precipitation. The oscillation occurs in roughly 20-30 day cycles (Inactive for 20-30 days, then Active for 20-30 days) over any single location on the planet, though most noticeable in the Pacific. During the Active Phase in the Pacific the MJO tends to support the formation of stronger and longer lasting gales resulting in enhanced potential for the formation of swell producing storms. Prolonged and consecutive Active MJO Phases in the Pacific help support the formation of El Nino. During the Inactive Phase the jet stream tends to split resulting in high pressure and less potential for swell producing storm development. Wind anomalies in the Kelvin Wave Generation Area (KWGA) are key for understanding what Phase the MJO is in over the Pacific. The KWGA is located on the equator from 135E-170W and 5 degs north and south (or on the equator from New Guinea east to the dateline). West wind anomalies in the KWGA suggest the Active Phase of the MJO in the Pacific, and east anomalies suggests the Inactive Phase. In turn the Active Phase strengthens and the Inactive Phase weakens the jetstream, which in turn enhances or dampens storm production respectively in the Pacific.And the El Nino/La Nino cycle (collectively know as ENSO - El Nino Southern Oscillation) is a less frequent (about once every 7 years) but more impactful cycle that affects world wide weather. Specifically, strong El Nino events promote storm production in the Pacific while La Nina events suppress storm production. These therefore have a significant impact on the production of swell and surf. The paragraphs below analyze the state of the MJO and ENSO in the Pacific and provide forecasts for upcoming activity (or inactivity depending on the state and interaction of these two oscillations).

Overview: In 2019 warm equatorial waters were fading, and by August a tongue of cool water was tracking west on the equator from Ecuador over the Galapagos reaching to a point nearly south of Hawaii. A bit of a recovery tried to occur during Fall of 2019, with weak warm water building in the Nino 1.2 region, but cool water held in a pool off Peru. By April 2020 a cool pool was starting to build, forming a well defined cool tongue that evolved into La Nina, with it fully developing through July 2020. A slow dissolving of La Nina started in March 2021 with 2 Kelvin Waves sweeping east and arriving over the Galapagos in June. Weak warming set up over the equator with no cool waters present. NOAA declared La Nina dead. But cold water returned in July 2021 and a second pulse of La Nina developed through the Winter of 2022 and is continuing today, though possibly weaker with its foundation appearing to be in decline.

Fall/Winter 2022 = 4.0 (California & Hawaii)
Rating based on a 1-10 scale: 1 being the lowest (small and infrequent surf conditions), 5 being normal/average, and 10 being extraordinary (frequent events of large, long period swells)

Rationale: It was assumed that the moderate La Nina from the Winter of 2020/2021 was on the wane and that a return to neutral ENSO state would set up over the Pacific Basin through the summer of 2021. But La Nina made a strong return by the end of Sept much like what the CFS model suggested would happen and a full double dip pattern took hold through the Winter of 21/22. But a quick fade is forecast as we move into late December 2022 with the CFS predicting a return to a neutral wind anomaly pattern and the low pressure bias making headway in to the KWGA in early Jan. Still it will take some time for the atmosphere to fully respond, resulting in a less than normal swell production forecast especially for Fall into early Winter 2022. But by later in Jan or early Feb 2023 a return to a more normal pattern might take hold. As a result a significantly reduced number of storm days and storm intensity is expected Oct 22-Jan 23, resulting in a below normal level of swells, with swell being below normal duration and period. But by Feb 2023, the number of storm days, intensity and duration of those storms should start improving as La Nina fades out. The net result is we're currently thinking a near normal number of swells with normal size and duration is to result, but all focused sometime after Jan 2023. The swell pattern will be below normal before Jan and above normal after Jan 23 with the average of the two being 'normal'. Of course this is all highly speculative at this early date.

KWGA/Equatorial Surface Wind Analysis (KWGA - Kelvin Wave Generation Area - The area 5 degrees north and south of the equator from 170W to 135E)
Analysis (TAO Buoys): As of (10/31) 5 day average winds were strong from the east over the Eastern equatorial Pacific and strong east over the Central Pacific and strong east over the KWGA. Anomalies were light east over the East equatorial Pacific and modest east over the Central Pacific and moderate east over the KWGA. (Note: These are 5 day average winds, versus realtime, so they lag what is happening today (by about 2.5 days).
1-2 Week Forecast (GFS Model): (11/1) neutral to weak east anomalies were covering 90% of the KWGA today with west anomalies in the far west KWGA. The 7 day forecast calls for those west anomalies fading and gone on 11/4 with weak to modest east anomalies filling the KWGA through the end of the forecast period 11/8 with a small pocket of west anomalies developing on the dateline 11/4 and holding beyond. The 2 week GFS model suggest weak east anomalies over the KWGA today with west anomalies developing over the dateline and building into 11/6, fading on 11/9 with weak to modest east anomalies returning to the KWGA and holding through the end of the model run on 11/17, but weakening significantly then.

Kelvin Wave Generation Area wind monitoring model: West and East

MJO/WWB/Wind Projections:  
OLR Models: (10/31) A moderate Active Phase of the MJO was indicated today over the KWGA. The statistical model indicates the Active Phase fading on day 5 of the model run and neutral on days 10 and 15. The dynamic model suggests the same thing.
Phase Diagrams 2 week forecast (ECMF and GEFS): (11/1) The statistical model depicts the Active signal was modest over the West Pacific today and is quickly track east to the Atlantic 15 days out and weak. The dynamic model suggest the Active Phase tracking east then retrograding back to the far West Pacific but exceedingly weak 15 days out.
40 day Upper Level Model (assumed to be a statistical mode and 1 week ahead of what is occurring at the surface): (11/1) A weak Active Phase (wet air) was over the Central Pacific today. The Active Phase is to slowly ease east while losing energy reaching the East Pacific and then pushing into Ecuador on 11/26. A modest Inactive Phase of the MJO is to start pushing east over the KWGA on 11/6 and slowly tracking east almost reaching Ecuador at the end of the model run on 12/11. A weak Active Phase is to be developing over the KWGA at that time.
4 Week CFS Model (850 mb wind): (10/31)
A solid Active signal was indicated today over the dateline but with weak east anomalies filling the KWGA. The forecast calls for the Active Phase tracking east and dissipating over the East Pacific 11/11 with west anomalies starting to build over the West KWGA 11/3 reaching the dateline fairly strong there and holding through 11/8 then collapsing. Solid east anomalies are to be redeveloping on the dateline 11/12-11/19 then fading with weak east anomalies holding on the dateline as the Inactive Phase of the MJO tracks to the Central KWGA then fades on 11/17. West anomalies to start building over the far West KWGA 11/14 filling 40% of the KWGA and holding through the end of the model run on 11/28.
3 Month CFS Model (850 mb wind):
(11/1) - using the 5th ensemble member - the mean of the 4 individual members which are all from the 00Z run - 1 run per day):
Today west anomalies were nearly filling the KWGA to the dateline at modest strength with the Active Phase of the MJO just past its peak over the KWGA. The forecast has the Active Phase of the MJO lingering over the dateline and points east of there through 11/15 but then pulsing again on 12/9 and then 1/9. Weak west anomalies are to slowly be building east from 140E to the dateline and beyond through 11/18 and holding if not expanding coverage over the entire equatorial Pacific for the foreseeable future. East anomalies are to be relegated to a small area east of the dateline, maybe rebuilding weakly near 130W 12/20-1/26 and also building over the Maritime Continent starting 12/25. The low pass filter indicates a high pressure bias with 2 contour lines centered at 180W with its western perimeter at 150E today. The second contour is to hold then collapsing on 12/1 with the primary contour gone on 1/15. The western edge of the high pressure bias is as far west today as it's going to be. A broad double contour low pressure bias is established centered over the West Maritime Continent at 90E with it's leading edge at 125E today and is to slowly start pushing east on 12/4 reaching east to 150E at the end of the model run on 1/29. This is all a big deal. Of note, east anomalies which are and have been centered at 180W are weakening with west anomalies taking over the KWGA on 11/18. And the High Pressure Bias is to dissipate in early Dec. East anomalies are to now develop over the Maritime Continent stating 11/25 and building beyond. It seems a full reversal of the pressure and wind pattern from the past 2+ years is to occur over the next 2 months. This suggests the full demise of La Nina is poised to begin. This would be a huge step forward, if it develops.

CFSv2 3 month forecast for 850 mb winds, MJO, Rossby etc - Alternate link

Subsurface Waters Temps
TAO Array: (11/1) Today in the far West Pacific the 29 degree isotherm was gone, previously at 171E. The 28 deg isotherm line was steady at 174E. The 26 degree isotherm was backtracking from 150W to 159W. The 24 deg isotherm was backtracking to 122 today, previously at 119W. Anomaly wise, warm anomalies at +3 deg C were in a pocket in the far West Pacific down 150m with it's leading edge stable at 150W. A pocket of cool anomalies at -4 degs C were centered at 135W and filling the area from 150W and points east of there and steady. The hi-res GODAS animation posted 10/25 indicates the same broad area of warm anomalies in the west pushing east to 155W and far warmer. A cool pocket was filling the area east of 155W and reaching the surface and far cooler. The GODAS animation appears to be 1 week behind the TAO data but also is more detailed and accurately modeled.
Sea Level Anomalies: (10/25) Sea heights were stable but negative over the East Equatorial Pacific. A broad pocket of positive anomalies were over the equator in the far West Pacific reaching east to 160W. A pocket of negative anomalies were covering from Ecuador to 160W with a building core at -15 cms positioned between 120-140W with -10 cm anomalies holding from 90W to 150W. Per the Upper Ocean Heat Anomaly Histogram cool anomalies were positioned in the Central Equatorial Pacific between 158W to Ecuador and building in coverage and intensity. It is already longer in duration than the previous cool pulse. If something doesn't change soon, La Nina will last through the Winter and the models will all be wrong.

Surface Water Temps
The more warm water in the equatorial East Pacific means more storm production in the North Pacific during winter months (roughly speaking). Cold water in that area has a dampening effect. Regardless of what the atmospheric models and surface winds suggest, actual water temperatures are a ground-truth indicator of what is occurring in the ocean. All data is from blended infrared and microwave sensors.
Satellite Imagery
Hi-res Nino1.2 & 3.4 Qualitative Analysis: (10/31) The latest images depict a broad generic pool of cool water extending west from Chile and Peru to the dateline and filling well south of the equator. A pocket of very cool water was erupting between Ecuador to 100W. An area of warm water was present on the equator from Ecuador west to 140W but mostly just north of the equator starting at 2N. A weak area of warm water was present north of the equator (15 deg N) extending off mainland Mexico to 145W. Water temps appears to be warming over a broad area south of the equator but are still anomalously cold. Overall this indicates the late stages of La Nina.
Hi-res 7 day Trend (10/31): A mix of mostly cooling water is on the equator in a thin string from Ecuador to 140W. The trend was towards cooling.
Hi-res Overview: (10/31) Persistent cool waters cover a large area from Ecuador to 160E on and south of the equator from South America down at 20S with the coolest waters between 80W to 90W on the equator. Warmer than normal waters were on the equator in the east aligned in a thin stream from Ecuador to 120W starting 3 degrees north of the equator. La Nina remains in control over the East Equatorial Pacific but the density and intensity of the cooling appears to be fading west of 100W.
Nino1.2 Daily CDAS Index Temps: (11/1) (These temps are biased high by about 0.2 degs compared to official sources). Today's temps were steady at -1.697 after falling to -1.850 on 10/20 and falling to -1.498 degs on 9/21 and had been falling since 9/14 after being in the -1.0 range since 7/29. Coral Reef indicates temps at -2.058 degs and toggling between -1.8 to -2.1 degs since Oct 9th. Temps were down on 7/20 to -1.6 degs. Previously temps were stable near -1.4 degrees 6/12 through 7/27. Peaks in that time frame were -1.189 (7/7), -1.534 (7/5). Previously temps were at -1.822 on 6/9 after being up to -1.506 (5/21) and that after hovering around -2.0 degs since 4/21/22. Prior to that temps were fading after peaking at +0.760 on 3/18. Temps had been moving upwards since 2/20, and beat a previous high of -0.650 degs on 1/9 and that after being down at -1.871 on 1/3/22 and -1.954 on 12/18/21, the lowest this year so far. Previously temps dropped on 11/24/21 at -1.700, the lowest in months after previously toggling steady at about -0.6 degs from mid Aug to Oct 6, then falling from there. That year temps bottomed out at -2.138 on 8/13/20. The longterm trend has been steadily downward.
Nino 3.4 Daily CDAS Index Temps:
(11/1) (These temps are biased high by about 0.2 degs). Today's temps were falling at -1.059 after falling to -0.900 on 10/18 beating a previous peak of -0.819 on 9/22 and were in the -1.0 range since 8/16. Coral Reef indicates temps nosediving at -1.167 degs and falling hard the last 11 days. Temps had fallen since 7/15 reaching La Nina threshold on 7/27 after being more or less steady the previous 3 weeks peaking at -0.25 on 7/14 and -0.275 on 7/5. Previously temps had been on an upward trend since 5/15/22 rising to -0.414 degs (6/19) and -0.493 on 6/9, the first reading above La Nina threshold values since Sept 2021. Temps were down to -0.929 (5/2/22) and that after rising to a peak at -0.704 on 3/27 and had been on a gentle rising trend since falling to -1.012 on 3/8. Previously temps were rising slightly to -0.505 on 2/2 and that after reaching a peak low of -1.096 on 1/3/22 beating the previous low of -1.080 on 11/2/21, the lowest in a year. Prior to that temps had been in a freefall starting from the -0.175 range in early Sept/21. Before that temps peaked up at 7/1/21 +0.332, the highest in a year. Temps previously had been steady near -0.222 since early March 2021. Temps bottomed out at -1.654 on 11/3/2020.

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CFSV2 Forecast for Nino3.4 Sea Surface Temp (SST) Anomalies & Current SST Anomalies

SST Anomaly Projections
CFSv2 Data
Previous - Temps rose in early Nov 2020 after bottoming out at -1.25 degs, up to -0.01 degs in mid-June 2021 then fading to -1.05 degs in mid-Nov then rebuilding to -0.7 in mid Feb 2022 then fading to -1.1 degs in May before starting an upward climb peaking in mid-June at -0.65 degs and mid July at -0.55 degs. A steady decline set in after that falling to -1.00 degs in Aug and earl Sept rising to -0.8 degs mod Oct.
Forecast (11/1) - Temps are to be falling to -1.25 degs mid-Nov then starting a farily steady rise in Dec hitting -0.75 degs mid January and reaching above the La Nina threshold (-0.5 degs) the 2nd week of Feb 2023 and up to +0.50 degs in July approaching El Nino territory. This model suggests we are going to steadily transition towards ENSO neutral in Jan. The PDF Corrected forecast suggests temps bottoming out at -1.05 in mid-Nov and then are to start pushing up to -0.65 degs mid- Jan rising above La Nina threshold the first week of Feb and rising from there forward to +0.50 degs in July. According to this version of the model we will hold in weak La Nina conditions through Fall before starting a trend towards neutrality in Dec with momentum towards El Nino in Spring. The surface temp coverage model suggests a temps holding steady through Nov. then a steady erosion of the coldest waters south of Nino3.4 (down at 20S) is to begin. By Dec a clear discharge of La Nina is to begin with near neutral temps prevailing over the entire equatorial Pacific and turning fully neutral in Feb and beyond. The greater equatorial Pacific cool signature looks to hold through mid-Oct then quickly dissolving beyond.
IRI Consensus Plume: The October 19, 2022 Plume depicts temps are -0.988 degs today. Temps to rise in Nov at -0.922 then are to warm to the La Nina threshold at -0.560 in Jan and -0.353 in Feb rising to +0.267 in June. This model suggests a continuation of minimal La Nina temps through early Dec then transitioning to ENSO neutral. This model is in line with the CFS model.
See chart here - link.

Atmospheric Coupling (Indicating the presence of El Nino in the atmosphere driven by the ocean):
Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) (negative is good, positive bad - all but the Daily Index was a lagging indicator):
Today (11/1) the Daily Index was rising some at +19.91 today. Previous peaks were +37.19 (10/5), +33.57 (5/24), +40.77 (5/10), +31.44 (4/27), +31.80 (4/6), +27.33 (1/31) and +46.71 (12/26). The trend has been solidly positive. Previous other notable peaks were +30.98 (11/26/21), +36.90 (9/28), +27.75 ( 9/13) and +37.86 (7/15).
The 30 day average was rising at +19.61 after peaking at +21.57 (10/16) after supposedly peaking at +19.66 on 9/28. It was down to +6.89 on 7/29. It peaked at +20.34 (5/12) the highest in a year and beating last years high of +19.51 (1/14).
The 90 day average was falling slightly at +15.29 previously at +12.92 on 8/11 and that after peaking at +18.40 (7/2) beating it's previous peak of +16.86 (5/31), the highest in a year. It previously peaked at +9.80 (9/21) after falling to it's lowest point in a year at +1.06 (6/9). The 90 day average peaked at +15.75 (2/23/21 - clearly indicative of La Nina then). This index is a lagging indicator but suggest La Nina is returning.

Pacific Decadal Oscillation
The PDO theoretically turned from a 16 year negative run (Jan 98-Feb 2014) in early 2014 and was positive till Dec 2019, but has been negative ever since, driven by recent La Nina conditions. In May-July 2021 it was the most negative its been in the -1.80 to -2.04 range since Sept 2012 (-2.99) and then fell to -3.16 in Oct 2021 (the lowest since July 1933) then settled at -2.72 in Nov and Dec 2021. Looking at the long term record, it seems likely we are still in the Cool Phase of the PDO (La Nina 'like') with no signs of moving to the positive/warm phase (El Nino 'like').

See imagery in the ENSO Powertool 

Powerlines Jeff Clark Inside Mavericks

Local Interest
Stormsurf Video Surf Forecast for this week. See it Here
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NBC News - Climate Change and Surfing:

Mavericks & Stormsurf on HBO Sports with Bryant Gumbel

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Time Zone Converter By popular demand we've built and easy to use time convert that transposes GMT time to whatever time zone you are located. It's ion left hand column on every page on the site near the link to the swell calculator.

Surf Height-Swell Height Correlation Table


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