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Pacific Storm and Surf Forecast
Updated: Tuesday, October 1, 2019 2:33 PM
Buoys: Northern CA - Southern CA - Hawaii - Gulf of Alaska - Pacific Northwest
Buoy Forecast:
Northern CA - Southern CA - Hawaii - Gulf of Alaska - Pacific Northwest
Pacific Links:  Atmospheric Models - Buoy Data - Current Weather - Wave Models
Forecast Archives: Enter Here
A chronology of recent Mavericks Underground forecasts. Once you enter, just click on the HTML file forecast you want to review (e.g. 073199.html equals July 31, 1999). To view the maps that correspond to that forecast date, select the html file labeled 073199 maps.html
3.0 - California & 1.7 - Hawaii
Using the 'Summer' Scale
(See Swell Category Table link at bottom of page)

Probability for presence of largest swells in near-shore waters of NCal, SCal or Hawaii.    

Issued for Week of Monday 9/30 thru Sun 10/6

Swell Potential Rating Categories
5 = Good probability for 3 or more days of Significant swell
4 = Good probability for 1-2 days of Significant swell
3 = Good probability for 3 or more days of Intermediate/Advanced swell
2 = Good probability for  1-2 days of
Intermediate/Advanced swell
1 = Good probability for 3 or more days of Impulse or Windswell
0 = Low probability for 1-2 days of Impulse or Windswell   

Small S. Hemi Swell Targets CA
Cut Off Low in Gulf to Target Hawaii

On Tuesday, October 1, 2019 :

  • Buoy 233 (Pearl Harbor Entrance)/Buoy 239 (Lanai) Seas were 2.8 ft @ 14.3 secs with swell 1.6 ft @ 14.2 secs from 192 degrees.
  • Buoy 106 (Waimea): This buoy has returned to service. Seas were 5.1 ft @ 7.1 secs with swell 2.7 ft @ 13.4 secs from 312 degrees.
  • Buoy 46025 (Catalina RDG): Seas were 4.1 ft @ 6.7 secs with swell 3.5 ft @ 6.5 secs from 262 degrees. Wind at the buoy was northwest at 4-8 kts. Water temperature 69.3 degs. At Harvest Buoy (071) primary swell was 5.8 ft @ 7.7 secs from 315 degrees. At Santa Monica (028) swell was 1.3 ft @ 14.8 secs from 218 degrees. At Oceanside (045) swell was 1.1 ft @ 15.9 secs from 214 degrees. Southward at Pt Loma (191) swell was 1.8 ft @ 14.9 secs from 211 degrees.
  • Buoy 46012 (Half Moon Bay)/029 (Pt Reyes): Seas were 5.1 ft @ 15.4 secs with swell 2.8 ft @ 8.8 secs from 318 degrees and 1.6 ft @ 15.1 secs from 203 degrees. Wind at the buoy (013) was northwest at 12-16 kts. Water temp 52.3 degs (013) and 59.5 degs (042).

See Hi-Res Buoy Dashboards (bottom of the page)

Swell Classification Guidelines

Significant: Winter - Swell 8 ft @ 14 secs or greater (11+ ft faces) for 8+ hours (greater than double overhead).
- Head high or better.
Advanced: Winter - Swell and period combination capable of generating faces 1.5 times overhead to double overhead (7-10 ft)
Summer - Chest to head high.
Intermediate/Utility Class: Winter - Swell and period combination generating faces at head high to 1.5 times overhead (4-7 ft).
- Waist to chest high.
Impulse/Windswell: Winter - Swell and period combination generating faces up to head high (1-4 ft) or anything with a period less than 11 secs.
- up to waist high swell. Also called 'Background' swell.

Surf Heights for Hawaii should be consider 'Hawaiian Scale' if period exceeds 14 secs.

Current Conditions
On Tuesday (10/1) in North and Central CA local north windswell was producing waves at waist to chest high and slightly warbled but otherwise clean and mushy. Protected breaks were waist to stomach high and clean and soft but rideable, just barely. At Santa Cruz fading small southern hemi swell was producing surf at waist to maybe chest high on the sets and clean and lined up but soft and weak. In Southern California/Ventura local windswell was producing set waves at waist high and clean but with soft period lump intermixed. In North Orange Co waves were waist to chest high on the sets and lined up but heavily warbled from south winds, but not whitecapped. South Orange Country's best summertime breaks had waves at chest to shoulder high and clean and lined up but slow and soft. North San Diego had surf at waist to near chest high on the sets and clean but soft and weak. Hawaii's North Shore was getting minimal north swell with waves chest to shoulder high and lined up and peeling and clean but inconsistent. The South Shore was small with waves waist high and clean and soft. The East Shore was getting minimal east windswell with waves waist high or so and chopped from moderate east trades.

See QuikCASTs for the 5 day surf overview or read below for the detailed view.

Meteorological Overview
On Tuesday (10/1) in California local north windswell was hitting providing minimal rideable surf while southern hemi swell from New Zealand was fading out. And supposedly small southern hemi swell was building but there was no clear signs of it yet. Hawaii was getting small northwest swell from a gale previously off Kamchatka. Beyond swell is to be building for California produced from a small gale that developed Sat-Sun (9/22) producing a brief window of 30-32 ft seas aimed mostly east just off the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf then tracked east-northeast and rebuilt with 32 ft seas aimed northeast over the southeast Pacific. Looking at the models a small gale is forecast developing in the Northern Gulf late Tues (10/1) into Wed (10/2) resulting in 21 ft seas over a small area aimed southeast. And a cutoff low is to produce a steady stream of 18 ft seas targeting Hawaii Thurs-Sun (10/6) possibly resulting in rideable north swell. And the model continue to tease concerning a gale developing under New Zealand lifting northeast Sat-Sun (10/6) with up to 40 ft seas over a small area. So maybe the summer swell pattern is not done quite yet. regardless, the transition from Summer towards Fall is occurring, but behind schedule and very slow.

See all the details below...

Current marine weather and wave analysis plus forecast conditions for the next 72 hours

North Pacific

On Tuesday (10/1) the jetstream was split but with the southern branch pushing pushing east off of Japan with winds to 110 kts but weakening just off the coast there pushing east to the dateline then merging with the northern branch and forming a modest sized trough dipping south of Alaska and being fed by 140 kts winds offering some support for gale development. East of there the jet was ridging hard north. Over the next 72 hours the Gulf trough is to fall southeast and start pinching off over the Pacific Northwest on Thurs (10/3) no longer offering any support for gale development. Back to the west the jet is to remain split with most energy moving into the northern branch tracking hard east through the Bering Sea and offering nothing of interest. Beyond 72 hours a small weak trough is forecast developing north of hawaii on Fri (10/4) being fed by a thin weak stream of 100 kts winds perhaps offering support for low pressure development and falling south into Mon (10/7) targeting Hawaii. otherwise a big ridge is forecast building over the West Pacific on Sat (10/5) and tracking east forcing the south and northern branches of the jet to merge but also displaced well to the north tracking over the Aleutians and not offering any real support for gale development. The Inactive Phase of the MJO is certainly making a mark.

Surface Analysis
Swell from a gale previously off Kamchatka was hitting Hawaii (see Kamchatka Gale below).

Over the next 72 hours a small gale is forecast developing in the Northern Gulf of Alaska on Tues AM (10/1) with 35-40 kt northwest winds barely reaching south of the Alaskan Coast and seas building. In the evening fetch is to build to 35-40 kts over a tiny area aimed southeast with seas building to 21 ft over a tiny area at 54N 150W aimed southeast. On Wed AM (10/2) fetch is to be fading from 30 kts falling southeast over a smaller area with 19 ft seas at 53N 145W aimed southeast. In the evening the gale is to be fading off the coast of Central Canada with 25-30 kt northwest winds and seas fading from barely 18 ft at 53N 142W and north of any great circle path to the SF Bay Area. We'll see what actually materializes.

Also on Tues (10/1) a low pressure system is to start building on the dateline producing a small area of north winds at 30-35 kts but with the gael lifting north and not getting much traction on the oceans surface. The gale is to lift north east into Thurs AM (10/3) then start tracking slowly east producing 30-35 kts north winds aimed well at Hawaii with seas finally developing at 18 ft over a small area aimed south at 45N 170W. In the evening north winds to continue at 30 kts with seas 18 ft at 44S 164W targeting Hawaii over a tiny area. Fetch to fade Fri AM (10/4) dropping to 25 kts from the north with 17 ft seas at 42N 160.5W targeting Hawaii. In the evening fetch is to start rebuilding as the low pressure system moves into the Central Gulf with northeast winds building to 30+ kts targeting Hawaii well with 17 ft seas at 45.5N 152W aimed south-southwest. On Sat AM (10/5) northeast winds to hold at 30 kts with seas 19 ft at 41N 154W aimed southwest at Hawaii. The gale to fade fast from there. Possible small north swell to result for Hawaii. Something to monitor.


Kamchatka Gale
An extra-tropical low pressure system started weakly redeveloping over the Northern Kuril's Tues AM (9/24) producing 40 kt south winds and seas building from 15 ft at 47N 162E aimed north. In the evening a building area of south winds at 40 kts were well off the Northern Kuril's with seas 19 ft at 48N 170E aimed north only at the Aleutians. On Wednesday (9/25) a ill defined fetch of southerly winds at 35 kts were pushing into the Central Aleutians producing 18-20 ft seas at 51N 175E aimed north and on no great circle path to the US West Coast or Hawaii. In the evening a secondary fetch of 35 kt west winds was pushing off the Northern Kuril's producing 20 ft seas at 49N 159E aimed east. On Thurs AM (9/26) west winds at 30+ kts were pushing off the Northern Kuril's producing 22 ft seas aimed east at 48N 165E. Fetch was fading from 25 kts in the evening with seas dropping from 18 ft at 49N 167.5E aimed east. This system faded out from there. Low odds of minimal background swell possible for Hawaii at best from the secondary pulse from this system.

Oahu: Swell holding on Tues (10/1) at 2.0 ft @ 12-13 secs (2.5 ft). Swell gone by Wed AM (10/2).


Windswell Outlook
On Tuesday (10/1) north winds to be 15 kts along and off North and Central CA making for some local short period windswell. For Hawaii east trade winds are to build in coverage at 15 kts extending 1200 nmiles east of the Islands making for small short period raw local windswell at exposed east facing breaks. On Wed (10/2) north winds to be 10 kts along the North and Central CA coast offering no real odds for windswell development. East fetch at 15 kts to continue more continuous from a point 1200 nmiles east of Hawaii sweeping over the Islands and producing short period easterly windswell. On Thurs (10/3) high pressure is to pulse again in the Gulf producing a building area of 20-25 kt north winds building over Cape Mendocino and pushing down off the Central CA coast resulting in building north windswell. East fetch is to build solid pushing over Hawaii at 15-20 kts extending 1500 nmiles east of the Islands resulting in building east windswell there. On Fri (10/4) a summer time pressure gradient is to be over North California with north winds 20-25 kts and north winds 15 kts over Central CA making for raw junky local north windswell. That fetch is to turn to the west making east winds at 15-20 kts pushing the while way from California over the Hawaiian Islands making east windswell there early, but that fetch is to be fading in coverage later in the day.


North Pacific Animations: Jetstream - Surface Pressure/Wind - Sea Height - Surf Height


Tropical Update
No tropical systems of interest are being tracked.

California Nearshore Forecast
On Tuesday (10/1) north winds were 10-15 kts for all of North and Central CA but 5-10 kts near the Golden gate early. On Wed (10/2) north winds to be 10 kts for all of North and Central CA early building to 15 kts later. Thurs (10/3) north winds to be 15 kts early for North and Central CA early pushing 20-25 kts later but near calm for Cape Mendocino. Fri (10/4) north winds to be 20-25 kts for North and Central CA all day. On Sat (10/5) north winds to be 15-20 kts for North CA but 10-15 kts for Central CA fading to 10 kts. On Sun (10/6) north winds to be 15 kts for Cape Mendocino down to Pt Arena early and light south of there and fading everywhere through the day. Mon (10/7) a weak wind pattern is forecast from the northwest at 5-10 kts holding all day. Tues (10/8) northwest winds to be 15 kts late AM for North and Central CA building to 20 kts over Central CA in the afternoon.

Snow Models: (Scroll down for resort specific forecasts).


South Pacific

Surface Analysis  
A gale tracked under New Zealand producing swell that is all but gone in California today (see Another New Zealand Gale below). And another gale developed behind that, and rebuilt over the Southeast Pacific possibly offering something of interest (see Southwest Pacific Gale below). Another small gale tracked under New Zealand but likely will offer nothing (see Tiny New Zealand Gale below).

Over the next 72 hours no swell producing weather systems are forecast.


Another New Zealand Gale
On Tues PM (9/17) a solid gale was tracking southwest of New Zealand under the Tasman Sea and just north of the Ross Ice Shelf with 40-45 kts west winds over a solid area and 40 ft seas at 59.5S 149.5E targeting (217 degs CA and shadowed by NZ for Hawaii). On Wed AM (9/18) southwest winds were 40 kts located south of New Zealand tracking east with 37 ft seas at 57S 169.5E aimed east on the 213 degree track to NCal and unshadowed. Fetch was falling southeast in the evening but aimed northeast at 40 kts solid with 35 ft seas at 59.5S 177.5E. On Thurs AM (9/19) 35-40 kt southwest winds were pushing east with 32 ft seas at 57S 176.5W aimed east-northeast. In the evening a small fetch of 30-35 kts south winds remained with seas 28 ft at 55S 173W tracking northeast. The gale was fading Fri AM (9/20) but fetch was lifting hard north with 30-35 kts south winds over a small area and seas fading from 27 ft up at 43S 170W aimed north. The gale stalled in the evening east of North New Zealand with 35-40 kt south winds aimed north and a solid area of 27 ft seas at 39N 168W aimed north targeting Hawaii well. On Sat AM (9/21) the gale was fading but still producing a tiny area of 40 kt south winds and 30 ft seas over a tiny area at 39S 170W aimed north. Small swell is radiating northeast towards the US West Coast from the early part of this gale and better focused at Hawaii from the second portion.

Southern CA: Dribbles fading on Tues (10/1) from 1.6 ft @ 14 secs early (2.0-2.5 ft). Swell Direction: 216 degrees

North CA: Dribbles fading on Tues (10/1) from 1.5 ft @ 14 secs early (2.0 ft). Swell Direction: 216 degrees


Southwest Pacific Gale
A gale developed southeast of New Zealand off the northern edge of the Ross Ice Shelf on Sat AM (9/21) with 40 kt west winds and seas 28-30 ft at 61.5S 165W aimed east. Southwest winds hold in the evening at 40 kts with seas 33 ft at 61.5S 158.5W aimed east. On Sun AM (9/22) 30-35 kts southwest winds were tracking east-northeast with seas fading from 27 ft at 59S 153W aimed northeast. The gale faded from there in the evening while lifting northeast with 25 ft seas at 55S 140W aimed northeast. On Monday AM (9/23)a new fetch starting building from the old one with 40 kt southwest winds and 28 ft seas building at 53.5S 134W aimed northeast. In the evening 45 kt west winds started racing east and out of the SCal swell window with 32 ft seas over a small area at 51S 121W aimed east-northeast. Some small swell is possible to result from this system.

Southern CA: Swell building on Tues (10/1) to 2.6 ft @ 16-17 secs later (4.0-4.5 ft). Swell holding on Wed (10/2) at 2.8 ft @ 15-16 secs (4.0-4.5 ft). Swell fading on Thurs (10/3) from 2.3 ft @ 14 secs early (3.0 ft). Swell Direction: 195 degrees

North CA: Swell building on Tues (10/1) to 2.3 ft @ 17 secs later (3.5-4.0 ft). Swell holding on Wed (10/2) at 2.2-2.3 ft @ 15-16 secs (3.5 ft). Swell fading on Thurs (10/3) from 1.9 ft @ 14-15 secs early (2.5-3.0 ft). Swell Direction: 193 degrees


Tiny New Zealand Gale
A small gale developed tracking east-northeast from under New Zealand on Fri PM (9/27) with 40 kt west-southwest winds and seas building to 28 ft at 54S 177E. On Sat AM (9/28) southwest wind were building at 45 kts over a small area with 32 ft seas at 52S 169W aimed east-northeast. In the evening a small area of 40-45 kts southwest winds tracked east with 32 ft seas at 53S 158W aimed east-northeast. On Sun AM (9/29) the gale was fading while falling southeast and no longer producing meaningful seas. No real swell is expected to result.


South Pacific Animations: Jetstream - Surface Pressure/Wind - Sea Height - Surf Height




Marine weather and forecast conditions 3-10 days into the future

North Pacific

Beyond 72 hours no swell producing weather systems are forecast.

Windswell Outlook
On Sat (10/5) low pressure is to start building in the Gulf with north winds at 20 kts along and off North CA producing local north windswell radiating south but with no fetch along the Central CA coast. No east fetch is forecast relative to Hawaii with no windswell production forecast. On Sun (10/6) no fetch or windswell of interest is forecast relative to California or Hawaii. No change is forecast on Mon or Tues (10/10) either.

It sure smells of La Nina given the preponderance of high pressure and wind at this point in the seasonal cycle, or at least the Inactive Phase of the MJO.


South Pacific

Beyond 72 hours starting Sat AM (10/5) a gale is to be developing under New Zealand with 40-45 ks west winds and seas building to 30 ft over a small area at 59S 162.5E. Southwest winds to continue lifting northeast in the evening with seas 37 ft at 57.5S 171E due south of New Zealand. On Sun AM (10/6) southwest winds to be fading from 35-40 kts moving southeast of New Zealand with seas 35 ft at 56S 179W. In the evening southwest winds to fade from 30+ kts with seas fading from 29 ft at 55S 169W aimed northeast. Something to monitor.


MJO/ENSO Forecast


La Nina Oceanic SST Pattern Backing Off Some

The Madden Julian Oscillation is a periodic weather cycle that tracks east along the equator circumnavigating the globe. It is characterized in it's Inactive Phase by enhanced trade winds and dry weather over the part of the equator it is in control of, and in it's Active Phase by slackening if not an outright reversing trade winds while enhancing precipitation. The oscillation occurs in roughly 20-30 day cycles (Inactive for 20-30 days, then Active for 20-30 days) over any single location on the planet, though most noticeable in the Pacific. During the Active Phase in the Pacific the MJO tends to support the formation of stronger and longer lasting gales resulting in enhanced potential for the formation of swell producing storms. Prolonged and consecutive Active MJO Phases in the Pacific help support the formation of El Nino. During the Inactive Phase the jet stream tends to split resulting in high pressure and less potential for swell producing storm development. Wind anomalies in the Kelvin Wave Generation Area (KWGA) are key for understanding what Phase the MJO is in over the Pacific. The KWGA is located on the equator from 135E-170W and 5 degs north and south (or on the equator from New Guinea east to the dateline). West wind anomalies in the KWGA suggest the Active Phase of the MJO in the Pacific, and east anomalies suggests the Inactive Phase. In turn the Active Phase strengthens and the Inactive Phase weakens the jetstream, which in turn enhances or dampens storm production respectively in the Pacific.The paragraphs below analyze the state of the MJO in the Pacific and provide forecasts for MJO activity (which directly relate to the potential for swell production).

Overview: A double dip La Nina was in control through the Winter of 2017-2018. But warming started building along the South and Central American coast in early March 2018 associated with two upwelling Kelvin Waves, and continued trying to build over equatorial waters over the Summer and Fall, but not enough to declare El Nino and not coupled with the atmosphere. In January 2019, those warm waters were fading, but then rebuilt late in Feb associated with Kelvin Wave (#3). But as of early June 2019 warm water was fading and by August a tongue of cool water was tracking west on the equator from Ecuador over the Galapagos reaching to a point nearly south of Hawaii. El Nino was dead.

Fall/Winter 2019/2020 = 5.0/4.0 (California & Hawaii)
Rating based on a 1-10 scale: 1 being the lowest (small and infrequent surf conditions), 5 being normal/average, and 10 being extraordinary (frequent events of large, long period swells)

Rationale: It is assumed the PDO has moved to the warm phase and that a weak borderline El Nino from 2018 is fading out, but not yet completely gone, especially in the atmosphere. Likewise it looks like a La Nina ocean temperature pattern is developing in the equatorial East Pacific, with cooler than normal waters tracking west on the equator. We assumed El Nino like momentum will hold for a while in the atmosphere will take a while to sense that the ocean temperature pattern has changed. But once it does, a turn towards a La Nina like atmospheric pattern will start to develop. that transition is expected in the late Nov-early Dec timeframe. Even so, moderation from the PDO might prevent La Nina from fully developing. Given all that, there is decent probability for a normal start to the Fall surf season (in the Northern Hemisphere) meaning a normal amount of number of storm days and storm intensity, resulting in a normal levels of swell, with normal duration and normal period. But by mid-Dec 2019, the number of storm days, intensity and duration of those storms should start fading and as a result, swell production should fade slightly as well. This pattern is expected to hold through April 2020.

KWGA/Equatorial Surface Wind Analysis & Short-term Forecast (KWGA - Kelvin Wave Generation Area - The area 5 degrees north and south of the equator from 170W to 135E)
Analysis (TAO Buoys): As of (9/30) 5 day average winds were solidly from the east over the Eastern equatorial Pacific shrinking in coverage but still present over the Central Pacific then rebuilding from the east at modest strength over the KWGA. Anomalies were neutral over the East equatorial Pacific turning neutral over the Central Pacific and then weak westerly over the KWGA.
1 Week Forecast (GFS Model): On (10/1) light to modest easterly anomalies were filling the KWGA, indicative of the Inactive Phase of the MJO tracking over the far West Pacific. The forecast is for east anomalies quickly retrograding west and almost out of the KWGA by 10/3 and holding with weak west anomalies backfilling over the whole of the KWGA then and holding through the end of the model run on 10/8.

Kelvin Wave Generation Area wind monitoring model: West and East

Longer Range MJO/WWB Projections:  
OLR Models: (9/30) A moderately strong Inactive Phase of the MJO was over the West KWGA today. The statistic model indicates the Inactive Phase is to start fading at day 5 and slowly fading and almost gone at day 15 of the model run. The dynamic model indicates the Inactive Phase holding nearly steady through the 15 day run.
Phase Diagrams 2 week forecast (ECMF and GEFS): (10/1) The statistical model depicts the Active Phase was moderately strong over East Africa and is to migrate steadily east to the Central Indian Ocean 15 days out and getting steadily weaker. The GEFS model suggests the Active Phase is to stall over North Africa and if anything retrograde east before dissipating over North Africa at day 15.
40 day Upper Level Model (assumed to be a statistical model): (9/30) This model depicts a weak Inactive MJO was over the West Pacific today and is to slowly fade while tracking east pushing into Central America on 10/15 while a weak Active Phase starts building in the West Pacific on 10/20. It is to ease east pushing into Central America at the end of the model run on 11/9. A weak Inactive Phase is to be moving east into the West Pacific at that time.
4 Week CFS Model (850 mb wind): (9/30) This model depicts the Inactive Phase and east anomalies building in the KWGA pushing west anomalies to the dateline. The forecast depicts the Inactive Phase and east anomalies building east over the KWGA for the next 4 weeks with east wind anomalies filling the majority of the KWGA for the duration of the model run. West anomalies are to be filling the Pacific east of the dateline, but of no use towards Kelvin Wave development. Of note: Extremely strong east anomalies are filling the Indian Ocean today centered at 80E and are to remain unchanged through the end of the model run.
3 Month CFS Model (850 mb wind): (10/1) This model depicts a strong Inactive MJO pattern building over and filling filling the KWGA today with weak east anomalies filling the KWGA from the west up to 150E with weak west anomalies holding on the dateline. The forecast has the Inactive MJO signal and wind pattern holding in the KWGA through 11/8 then starting to fade. A solid Active Phase is to develop 11/10 holding through 12/5 with solid west anomalies in the heart of the KWGA. A weak MJO signal is to follow through the end of the model run on 12/30 with steady west anomalies on the dateline unchanged. Of note: Strong east anomalies are in the core of the Indian Ocean today at 80E and are to hold solid through 10/25 but still solidly present through the end of the model run. The low pass filter changed on 7/25 and is holding today with a low pressure bias with 1 contour line in control of the KWGA centered on the dateline reaching east to California. This single contour line is to hold while a second contour line develops 10/8 and possibly a third contour line on 11/28 while a high pressure bias builds in the Indian Ocean starting 10/19. If this pattern holds into early Fall it would constitute an upgrade. This model indicates that a weak El Nino pattern is to maybe rebuild. That is not believable at this early date given the water temperature anomaly situation over the equatorial West (cool) and East Pacific (cooler) today.

CFSv2 3 month forecast for 850 mb winds, MJO, Rossby etc - Alternate link

Subsurface Waters Temps
TAO Array: (10/1) Today in the far West Pacific water temps are 30 degs over a shrinking area retrograding west to 179E while the 29 deg isotherm was backtracking at 169W today. The 28 deg isotherm line was easing east at 157W today. The 24 deg isotherm was easing east at 123W today. Anomaly wise, gentle warm anomalies are filling the West Pacific at +2 degs from the surface to 150 meters down (deepest on the dateline) and indicative of Kelvin Wave #5 on the move to the east reaching east to at least 137W today with a finger near the surface to 110W. And a cool pocket that has been locking down the East Pacific was fading fast with it's core at -2 degs down 100 meters tracking east at 123W and looking to be collapsing. The hi-res GODAS animation posted 9/25 indicates warm water from Westerly Wind Burst #5 has formed a Kelvin Wave under the Dateline with cool anomalies from 130W into Ecuador drawing up from depth to the surface. No warming was present east of 130W. The GODAS animation appears to be 1 week behind the TAO data but also is more detailed and accurately modeled.
Sea Level Anomalies: (9/25) A broad area of positive anomalies were on the dateline from 155E to near 140W at +5 cms. Negative anomalies were still present pushing west from Ecuador at -5 cms but backtracking to 125W and -10 cms in one pocket on the equator at 100W forming a cool triangle reaching up into Central America and down to Chile suggestive of La Nina and a cool wave pushing west from the Ecuadorian Coast.

Surface Water Temps: The more warm water in the equatorial East Pacific means more storm production in the North Pacific during winter months (roughly speaking). Cold water in that area has a dampening effect. Regardless of what the atmospheric models and surface winds suggest, actual water temperatures are a ground-truth indicator of what is occurring in the ocean. All data is from blended infrared and microwave sensors.
Satellite Imagery
Hi-res Nino1.2 & 3.4: (9/30) The latest images (1.2 3.4) indicate neutral to weak warm anomalies are present north of the equator from Central America west to 130W and then broader coverage west of there to the dateline. Of more interest was a pool of cool water along the coasts of Chile up to Peru then weaker but streaming west on the equator off Ecuador over the Galapagos and out to 120W unbroken suggestive of La Nina, but weaker than days and weeks past. A previous pocket of warm anomalies south of the equator extending from just off Peru west to the dateline were all but gone. There has been a steady evaporation of El Nino in the East equatorial Pacific with La Nina developing there.
Hi-res 7 day Trend (9/30): Today no patches of cooler water were present and a steady stream of warming was developing on the equator between Ecuador to 140W. The trend is towards warming and not favoring cooling as was previously the trend. Regardless, the longer term trend has been towards cooling over the past 2 months. Suspect this warming trend is temporary, but we'll have to see. Today's data makes the warming pattern looking stronger.
Hi-res Overview: (9/30) A clear La Nina cool stream was pushing west starting with a broad bubble of cool water along Chile and Peru then streaming west off Ecuador to 140W, no longer to 155W as was the case a week earlier and looking weaker than days past. Warmer than normal water was straddling the equator from the remnants of El Nino, mainly north of the equator and all gone south of the equator. Instead a cool triangle was becoming obvious from South Chile northwest to 140W on the equator then east to Ecuador. El Nino appears to be in retreat and La Nina appears to be trying to develop, but less aggressively as of late.
Nino1.2 Daily CDAS Index Temps: (10/1) Today's temps were rebounding again today after falling hard to -1.8 degs on 9/15, up to -0.023 today and have been pretty consistently negative since June 1.
Nino 3.4 Daily CDAS Index Temps:
(10/1) Temps were rising some today and about neutral at -0.011 degs after bottoming out on 8/28 at -0.510 degs and 9/15 at -0.60 degs. The trend has been generally downward since mid-June.

Click for Full Sized Image Click for Full Sized Image

CFSV2 Forecast for Nino3.4 Sea Surface Temp (SST) Anomalies & Current SST Anomalies

SST Anomaly Projections
CFSv2 Uncorrected Data (9/30) The model indicates a cooling trend set up with temps dropping to -0.05 degs in early August down to -0.3 degs Sept 1. The forecast unrealistically has temps rising dramatically through Sept reaching +0.5 degs by Oct 1 (which did not occur) and then forecast to fade to neutral in early Dec. Temps to hold between neutral to +0.1 degs Jan 1 2020 into March, possibly rising some after that to +0.3 degrees in May. According to this model a neutral sea surface temperature pattern is forecast. It seems this model is finally starting to get a handle on reality.
IRI Consensus Plume: The Aug 2019 Plume depicts temps are at +0.30 degs in August, and are to hold in the +0.50 range into Dec/Jan, then fading slightly to +0.45 in May/April 2020. See chart here - link.

Atmospheric Coupling (Indicating the presence of El Nino in the atmosphere driven by the ocean):
Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) (negative is good, positive bad) (10/1): The daily index was positive today at +2.32. The 30 day average was negative at -12.16. The 90 day average was rising slightly today at -7.39, suggesting a neutral ENSO pattern was developing.
ESPI Index (like SOI but based on satellite confirmed precipitation. Positive and/or rising is good, negative and/or falling is bad): August +0.64, July +0.82, June -0.32, May +1.10, April +0.34, March +1.0, Feb +1.29, Jan +0.193. This index has been steadily positive but still indicates mostly ENSO neutral conditions (not El Nino).

Pacific Decadal Oscillation
Per NOAAs index recent values: June 2017 +0.21, July -0.50, Aug -0.62, Sept -0.25, Oct -0.61, Nov -0.45, Dec -0.13, Jan 2018 +0.29, Feb -0.19, Mar -0.61, April -0.89, May -0.69, June -0.85, July -0.09, Aug -0.43, Sept -0.46, Oct -0.75, Nov -0.78, Dec -0.12, Jan -0.23, Feb -0.55 This continues to look like the warm phase of the PDO, even with La Nina, because the warm PDO appears to be dampening the effects of La Nina. No consistently solid negative readings have occurred since Feb 2014
The Washington/JISAO index (Jan-Dec): June 2017 +0.79, July +0.10, Aug +0.09, Sept +0.32, Oct +0.05, Nov +0.15, Dec +0.50, Jan +0.70. Feb +0.37, Mar -0.05, April +0.11, May +0.11, June -0.04, July +0.11, Aug +0.18, Sept +0.09. No real negative readings have occurred since Dec 2013
The PDO turned from a 16 year negative run (Jan 98-Feb 2014) in early 2014 and has been positive ever since (other than a few months of negative readings in Fall 2016, the result of a turn towards La Nina). Looking at the long term record, it is premature to conclude that we have in-fact turned from the negative phase (La Nina 'like') to the positive phase (El Nino 'like'), but the data strongly suggests that could be a possibility. By the time it is confirmed (4-5 years out), we will be well into it.

See imagery in the ENSO Powertool 


External Reference Material: El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), Kelvin Wave

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