Saturday, September 26, 2020
- Buoy 233 (Pearl Harbor Entrance)/Buoy 239 (Lanai): Seas were 3.0 ft @ 16.7 secs with swell 1.7 ft @ 15.8 secs from 185 degrees.
- Buoy 106 (Waimea): This buoy is currently not operating (ceased service at 9/15 - 19Z). Water temp 81.0 degs.
- Buoy 46025 (Catalina RDG): Seas were 2.9 ft @ 17.2 secs with swell 1.2 ft @ 16.3 secs from 173 degrees. Wind at the buoy was east at 8-12 kts. Water temperature 69.6 degs. At Harvest Buoy (071) primary swell was 6.1 ft @ 12.8 secs from 302 degrees. At Santa Monica (028) swell was 1.7 ft @ 13.7 secs from 252 degrees. At Oceanside (045) swell was 1.5 ft @ 15.9 secs from 213 degrees. Southward at Point Loma (191) swell was 2.9 ft @ 13.5 secs from 287 degrees.
- Buoy 46012 (Half Moon Bay)/029 (Pt Reyes): Seas were 9.3 ft @ 13.3 secs with swell 6.4 ft @ 12.5 secs from 307 degrees. Wind at the buoy (012) was northwest at 18-23 kts. Water temp 53.1 degs (013), 59.0 degs (SF Bar) and 55.6 degs (042).
See Hi-Res Buoy Dashboards (bottom of the page)
Swell Classification Guidelines
Significant: Winter - Swell 8 ft @ 14 secs or greater (11+ ft faces) for 8+ hours (greater than double overhead).
Summer - Head high or better.
Advanced: Winter - Swell and period combination capable of generating faces 1.5 times overhead to double overhead (7-10 ft)
Summer - Chest to head high.
Intermediate/Utility Class: Winter - Swell and period combination generating faces at head high to 1.5 times overhead (4-7 ft).
Summer - Waist to chest high.
Impulse/Windswell: Winter - Swell and period combination generating faces up to head high (1-4 ft) or anything with a period less than 11 secs.
Summer - up to waist high swell. Also called 'Background' swell.
Surf Heights for Hawaii should be consider 'Hawaiian Scale' if period exceeds 14 secs.
On Saturday (9/26) in North and Central CA Gulf swell was still hitting producing waves at 2 ft overhead on the sets but pretty tattered if not whitecapped early from northwest wind and fog on top. Protected breaks were head high to 1 ft overhead and closed out and heavily textured and fogged in. At Santa Cruz waves were head high to maybe 1 ft more and lined up but generally soft and mushed but clean. In Southern California/Ventura waves were waist to chest high on the sets and clean with decent form but soft. Central Orange County had set waves at waist to chest high coming from the north with intermixed warble coming from the south and soft and ill formed but otherwise clean. South Orange County's best summertime breaks had set waves at chest to shoulder high and clean and peeling but soft and not well focused. North San Diego had sets at waist to chest high and clean and lined up shifting up and down the beach. Hawaii's North Shore was getting nice earl season swell with waves occasionally chest to shoulder high and lined up and peeling at top spots and clean. The South Shore was still getting southern hemi swell with set waves waist high or so and clean but soft. The East Shore was getting minimal east windswell with waves thigh high and heavily textured early from modest east trades.
See QuikCASTs for the 5 day surf overview or read below for the detailed view.
On Saturday (9/26) swell from the Gulf of Alaska was still hitting California having been generated by a gale that tracked from the far Northwestern Gulf Mon-Wed (9/23) with 27-28 ft seas aimed well east and southeast. Hawaii was starting to see the first signs of swell from a system that developed under New Zealand on Sat (9/19) tracking east through the deep Central and Southeast Pacific into Tues (9/22) producing seas up 41 ft aimed east. That swell's primary target is the US West Coast. Up north another gael is forecast spinning up in the Northern Gulf Sat-Sun (9/28) producing up to 43 ft seas over a small area aimed east. And maybe another system to follow in the Central Gulf on Tues (9/29) producing 30 ft seas aimed east. And yet another weak and small one is possible behind that in the Gulf on Thurs (10/1) with 28-30 ft seas aimed east. Not a bad start if it all materializes. And down south one last small system is forecast developing under New Zealand Mon-Tues (9/29) with up to 35 ft sea aimed well north over a small area. And there's hope beyond that too. So Fall is in full swing now.
See all the details below...
SHORT- TERM FORECAST
Current marine weather and wave analysis plus forecast conditions for the next 72 hours
On Saturday (9/26) the jet was well consolidated starting on the dateline tracking east and forming a solid trough being fed by 180 kts winds falling over the Northwestern Gulf of Alaska offering good support for gale development. East of there the jet continued east at 130-140 kts pushing over British Columbia but with no troughs imbedded. Not too bad. Over the next 72 hours the trough in the Western Gulf is to only deepen into Sun PM (9/27) being fed by 190 kt winds and getting steeper offering great support for gale development then starting to get too steep and almost pinching off in the Central Gulf on Tues AM (9/29) with support for gale development starting to fade them. Beyond 72 hours the pinched trough over the Gulf is to try and regenerate starting Wed AM (9/30) being fed by 160 kt winds over a broader area supporting lower level circulation over a good portion of the Gulf. That trough is to become more focused into Thurs (10/1) but with less winds energy still supporting gale development before lifting north and fading on Fri (10/2). On Sat (10/3) the jet is to be running zonal (flat east) with winds 130-140 kts between the dateline and the Eastern Gulf looking ready to again support gale development if a trough were to materialize.
On Saturday (9/26) swell was hitting California from a gale previously in the Northwestern Gulf of Alaska (see Northwestern Gulf Gale below).
Over the next 72 hours another small gale was developing in the Northwestern Gulf Sat AM (9/26) producing 30-35 kt west winds with seas on the increase. In the evening the gale is to lift northeast producing 55 kt west winds over a small area and seas building to 33 ft over a tiny area at 48N 156W aimed east. On Sun AM (9/27) the gale is to track northeast with 50 kts winds and seas building to 43 ft at 50.5N 148.5W aimed east targeting mainly Canada but still in the North Ca swell window (309 degs). In the evening the gale is to lift north into the extreme northern Gulf of Alaska with 45 kts west winds and seas 39 ft at 55.5N 142.5W and north of the North CA swell window (323 degs). Something to monitor.
North CA: Assuming this system forms as forecast, swell arrival would be on Tues (9/29) pushing 5.6 ft @ 15 secs from 305 degrees
Another small gale is forecast developing in the Central Gulf of Alaska on Mon PM (9/28) producing 40-45 kt north winds and seas building to 28 ft over a tiny area at 42N 160W aimed south at Hawaii. The gale is to track east Tues AM (9/29) with 40-45 kt northwest winds over a modest sized area and seas building to 30 ft at 42.5N 155W aimed southeast and targeting more of California than Hawaii. The gale is to be lifting northeast in the evening 35-40 kt northwest winds targeting California up into British Columbia with 27 ft seas at 43.5N 150W aimed east. The gael is to lift north and fade on Wed AM (9/30) with seas fading from 23 ft up at 49N 149W aimed east. Something to monitor.
Northwestern Gulf Gale
A low pressure system started traversing the far Northwest Pacific on Sat PM (9/19) tracking just south of the Aleutian Islands producing a small area of up to 27 ft seas at 51N 173W aimed east on Sun PM (9/20) but not getting interesting till Mon AM (9/21) when the low is to start falling southeast some over the Eastern Aleutians producing 35 kt northwest winds with seas building in coverage at 27 ft at 49.5N 167.5W aimed southeast. In the evening northwest winds increased in coverage at 35 kts with seas building to 28 ft at 47.5N 160W aimed southeast. On Tues AM (9/22) the gale was fall southeast over the Central Gulf of Alaska producing 35 kt northwest winds over a decent sized area with seas 27 ft at 46N 156W aimed southeast. The gale built some in coverage in the evening while tracking east with 35-40 kt northwest winds and seas 29 ft at 45.5N 151.5W aimed southeast. On Wed AM (9/23) northwest winds were 35 kts over the Central Gulf approaching the Pacific Northwest with seas fading from 27 ft over a solid area at 44N 144W aimed southeast. Fetch is to be fading in the evening from 30 kts with seas fading from 22 ft at 45.5N 136.5W aimed southeast. The gale is to dissipate from there. This forecast has held pretty decent for days now and is likely to produce swell.
North CA: Residuals fading on Sat (9/26) from 5.2 ft @ 13 secs early (6.5 ft). Dribble on Sun (9/27) at 5.5 ft @ 10-11 secs (5.5 ft). Swell Direction: 299-305 degrees
Southern CA: Swell fading on Sat (9/26) fading from 3.1 ft @ 13-14 secs early (4.0 ft). Residuals on Sun (9/27) fading from 2.3 ft @ 11-12 secs (2.5 ft). Swell Direction: 303-309 degrees
North Pacific Animations: Jetstream - Surface Pressure/Wind - Sea Height - Surf Height
No tropical system are being monitored.
California Nearshore Forecast
On Saturday (9/26) northwest winds were 20 kts for all of North and Central CA and forecast to near 25 kts later. Sunday (9/27) northwest winds are forecast to 30 kts over North CA early and 10 kts for Central CA building over Cape Mendocino to 35 kts later and near calm from Bodega Bay southward later. Monday (9/28) a light wind flow is forecast for the entire CA coast all day. Tues (9/29) a light south wind flow is forecast all day for North and Central CA. On Wed (9/30) northwest winds are forecast at 5-10 kts early for North and Central CA building to 10-15 kts later. On Thurs (10/1) northwest winds are forecast at 10-15 kts early for all of North and Central CA holding all day. No change on Fri (10/2). On Sat (10/3) northwest winds are forecast at 15+ kts for the Pt Arena area, but 5-10 kts south of there to Pt Conception all day. No precipitation is forecast for the week with an upper level ridge/high pressure in control of the Great Basin.
Total snow accumulation for the week for Squaw Valley, Sugar Bowl, Kirkwood and Mammoth at 0, 0, 0 and 0 inches respectively. Freezing level 14,000 ft or higher for the next 10 days.
Snow Models: http://www.stormsurf.com/mdls/menu_snow.html (Scroll down for resort specific forecasts). Updated!
On Saturday (9/26) swell from another gale that developed under New Zealand was propagating northeast (See South Pacific Gale below).
Over the next 72 hours a gale is forecast developing south of New Zealand on Sun AM (9/27) producing 45-50 kt south winds and seas starting to develop. In the evening 45-50 kt south winds are forecast just off the edge of the Ross Ice Shelf pushing north producing seas building to 37 ft at 56.5S 172.5E aimed north. On Mon AM (9/28) south winds are to be 40 kts holding in place and seas 28-33 ft near 56.5S 172E aimed north. Fetch is to fade some in the evening at 35 kts from the south with 27 ft seas fading at 54S 171E aimed north. By Tues AM (9/29) fetch is to be gone. Something to monitor.
South Pacific Gale
A gale started developing under New Zealand just off the Ross Ice Shelf on Sat PM (9/19) producing a 40-45 kt southwest winds resulting in seas at 38 ft aimed east at 59.5S 179.5W tracking east. On Sun AM (9/20) southwest winds were 40 kts over a solid area with seas building to 39 ft at 60S 172W aimed east-northeast. In the evening southwest winds built to 40-45 kts over a broad and solid area aimed east-northeast with seas 40 ft at 59.5S 162.5W aimed east-northeast. On Mon AM (9/21) 40 kt west-southwest winds were covering a large area with seas 40 ft at 59S 150W aimed east-northeast. Fetch was fading in the evening while pushing east at 40 kts from the west still over a solid area with seas fading from 36 ft at 57.5S 137W aimed east. On Tues AM (9/22) fetch was fading over the far Southeast Pacific with seas 33 ft at 58S 120W aimed east. In the evening a lingering fetch of west winds to hold at 40-45 kts barely in the SCal swell window with seas 28-30 ft at 53S 119W aimed east. This system continued tracking east offering energy only up into Chile. Something to monitor.
Hawaii: Expect swell arrival on Sat (9/26) building to 1.1 ft @ 19 secs late (2.0 ft). Swell building some on Sun (9/27) to 1.4 ft @ 17 secs (2.0-2.5 ft). Swell holding on Mon (9/28) at 1.4 ft @ 15-16 secs (2.0-2.5 ft). Swell all but gone on Tues (9/29). Swell Direction: 195 degrees
Southern CA: Expect swell arrival on Sun (9/27) building to 1.3 ft @ 23 secs at sunset (2.5 ft). Swell building on Mon (9/28) to 2.5 ft @ 20 secs later (5.0 ft). Swell building on Tues (9/29) to 3.0 ft @ 18 secs mid-day (5.0-5.5 ft with sets to 6.5 ft). Swell solid on Wed (9/30) building to 3.3 ft @ 16-17 secs (5.5 ft with sets to 6.5-7.0 ft). Swell Direction: 198 degrees
North CA: Expect swell arrival on Sun (9/27) but not rideable yet with period 23-24 secs late. Swell building on Mon (9/28) to 2.0 ft @ 20-21 secs later (4.0 ft). Swell building on Tues (9/29) to 2.5 ft @ 18 secs late (4.5 ft with sets to 5.5 ft). Swell solid on Wed (9/30) at 2.6 ft @ 16-17 secs (4.0-4.5 ft with sets to 5.5t). Swell Direction: 197 degrees
South Pacific Animations: Jetstream - Surface Pressure/Wind - Sea Height - Surf Height
Marine weather and forecast conditions 3-10 days into the future
Beyond 72 hours another small gale is forecast developing 900 nmiles north of Hawaii on Wed PM (9/30) with 40 kt west winds and seas to 21 ft at 38N 165W aimed southeast. The gale is to track east in the evening with 35-40 kt west winds and seas 24 ft at 38N 159W aimed mainly east of Hawaii. The gale is to lift northeast on Thurs AM (10/1) with 35+ kt northwest winds and seas 24 ft at 41N 153W aimed southeast. Fetch is to momentarily build in the evening to 45 kts with seas 29 ft at 42.5N 148.5W aimed east. A rapid fade is to follow.
The storm cycle is to fade after that.
Beyond 72 hours no swell producing weather systems of interest are forecast.
Cold Water and La Nina Firmly In Control
The Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a periodic weather cycle that tracks east along the equator circumnavigating the globe. It is characterized in it's Inactive Phase by enhanced trade winds and dry weather over the part of the equator it is in control of, and in it's Active Phase by slackening if not an outright reversing trade winds while enhancing precipitation. The oscillation occurs in roughly 20-30 day cycles (Inactive for 20-30 days, then Active for 20-30 days) over any single location on the planet, though most noticeable in the Pacific. During the Active Phase in the Pacific the MJO tends to support the formation of stronger and longer lasting gales resulting in enhanced potential for the formation of swell producing storms. Prolonged and consecutive Active MJO Phases in the Pacific help support the formation of El Nino. During the Inactive Phase the jet stream tends to split resulting in high pressure and less potential for swell producing storm development. Wind anomalies in the Kelvin Wave Generation Area (KWGA) are key for understanding what Phase the MJO is in over the Pacific. The KWGA is located on the equator from 135E-170W and 5 degs north and south (or on the equator from New Guinea east to the dateline). West wind anomalies in the KWGA suggest the Active Phase of the MJO in the Pacific, and east anomalies suggests the Inactive Phase. In turn the Active Phase strengthens and the Inactive Phase weakens the jetstream, which in turn enhances or dampens storm production respectively in the Pacific.And the El Nino/La Nino cycle (collectively know as ENSO - El Nino Southern Oscillation) is a less frequent (about once every 7 years) but more impactful cycle that affects world wide weather. Specifically, strong El Nino events promote storm production in the Pacific while La Nina events suppress storm production. These therefore have a significant impact on the production of swell and surf. The paragraphs below analyze the state of the MJO and ENSO in the Pacific and provide forecasts for upcoming activity (or inactivity depending on the state and interaction of these two oscillations).
Overview: A double dip La Nina was in control through the Winter of 2017-2018. But warming started building along the South and Central American coast in early March 2018 associated with two upwelling Kelvin Waves, and continued trying to build over equatorial waters over the Summer and Fall, but not enough to declare El Nino and not coupled with the atmosphere. In January 2019, those warm waters were fading, but then rebuilt late in Feb associated with Kelvin Wave (#3). But as of early June 2019 warm water was fading and by August a tongue of cool water was tracking west on the equator from Ecuador over the Galapagos reaching to a point nearly south of Hawaii. El Nino was dead. A bit of a recovery occurred during Fall of 2019, with weak warm water building in the Nino 1.2 region, but cool water held in a pool off Peru and had not changed until March 2020. By April the cool pool pushed east and by May subsurface cool waters erupted off Ecuador, forming a well defined cool tongue that looked like the start of La Nina, holding into July 2020.
LONG-RANGE PACIFIC STORM AND SWELL GENERATION POTENTIAL FORECAST
Fall/Winter 2020/2021 = 3.0/3.5 (California & Hawaii)
Rating based on a 1-10 scale: 1 being the lowest (small and infrequent surf conditions), 5 being normal/average, and 10 being extraordinary (frequent events of large, long period swells)
Rationale: It is assumed the PDO has moved to the warm phase in 2014 and that a weak borderline El Nino from 2018 faded out in the Fall of 2019. A La Nina like ocean temperature pattern developed in the equatorial East Pacific in the summer of 2019, then faded and returned to a neutral if not weak warm status during the Winter of 2019-2020 only to return stronger in the Summer of 2020. We have been suspecting a turn towards a La Nina like atmospheric pattern to develop in the late Winter/early Spring of 2020. Our best hope is that moderation from the warm phase of the PDO might tamp down development of a full blown La Nina as we move into 2020. But at this time that does not appear likely. Given all that, for the 2020 there is decent probability for development of La Nina meaning a reduced number of storm days and storm intensity during the summer season, resulting in a below normal level of swell, with swell being below normal duration and period. And by the Fall and early Winter of 2020/21, the number of storm days, intensity and duration of those storms should fade even more, resulting in depressed swell production. This pattern is expected to hold through the Spring of 2021.
KWGA/Equatorial Surface Wind Analysis & Short-term Forecast (KWGA - Kelvin Wave Generation Area - The area 5 degrees north and south of the equator from 170W to 135E)
Analysis (TAO Buoys): As of (9/25) 5 day average winds were strong from the east over the Eastern equatorial Pacific continuing over the Central Pacific and strong from the east over the KWGA. Anomalies were neutral over the East equatorial building continuing over the Central Pacific and then building to moderate east over the KWGA. (Note: These are 5 day average winds, so they lag what is happening today by about 2 days).
1 Week Forecast (GFS Model): On (9/26) moderate plus east anomalies were filling the KWGA today and extending east to a point south of California on the equator. The forecast calls for east anomalies holding at moderate status building to strong status on 9/30 and filling the KWGA through the end of the model run on 10/3. Support for energy transfer into the jet is weak and is expected to continue that way if not weakening more for at least the next week.
Kelvin Wave Generation Area wind monitoring model: West and East
- Longer Range MJO/WWB Projections:
OLR Models: (9/25) A modest Active MJO signal was over the KWGA today. The statistic model indicates the Active MJO pattern is to hold at modest status on days 5 and 10 and then all but gone on day 15. The dynamic model suggests the exact same thing but with the Active Phase fading on day 10.
Phase Diagrams 2 week forecast (ECMF and GEFS): (9/26) The statistical model depicts the Active Phase was weak over the East Maritime Continent today and is to collapse while tracking east into the West Pacific and near nothing at day 15. The GEFS model suggests much the same.
40 day Upper Level Model (assumed to be a statistical mode and 1 week ahead of what is occurring at the surface): (9/25) This model depicts a weak Active MJO was over the West Pacific today and fragmented by present over the Central Pacific too. The weak Active pattern is to push east and into Central America on 10/25 having only limited benefit to storm production. A more cohesive but still moderate Inactive Phase of the MJO is to push east over the KWGA on 10/15 tracking to the East Pacific at the end of the model run on 11/4.
4 Week CFS Model (850 mb wind): (9/25) This model depicts no coherent MJO signal today but with moderate east anomalies filling the KWGA and all of the equatorial Pacific. The forecast indicates no coherent MJO signal forecast till 11/11 but with a mix of mostly east anomalies over the KWGA. West anomalies are forecast over the East Pacific 10/1-10/9 with a hint of the Active Phase of the MJO forecast there. Starting 11/12 the Inactive Phase of the the MJO is forecast setting up on the dateline with strong east anomalies taking control in the KWGA through the end of the model run on 10/23.
3 Month CFS Model (850 mb wind): (9/26 - using the 4th/latest ensemble member): This model depicts a weak Active Phase of the MJO over the KWGA today but with east anomalies still controlling the area. The Active Phase is to weaken while pushing east and gone on 9/30 producing no west west anomalies. A weak Inactive MJO signal is forecast 10/7-10/15 with mostly weak to modest east filling the KWGA but with stronger east anomalies setting up east of the dateline filling the area of Ecuador. The Active Phase is to try and return on 10/17 but not particularly coherently holding in the KWGA into 10/28 producing weak west anomalies mostly filling the KWGA while east anomalies hold in the East Pacific. The Active Phase is to build more coherently starting 10/28 and tracking east through the KWGA 12/15 with solid west anomalies forecast in the KWGA through the end of the model run on 12/24. A stronger Inactive Phase is to follow building in the West KWGA 12/7 tracking east through the end of the model run. The low pass filter indicates a high pressure bias is firmly in control over the dateline today with 2 contour lines reaching east to a point south of California and is to continue through the end of the model run while perhaps easing east some with the western edge of the high pressure bias slowly moving east through the period positioned at 170E at the end of the model run. A single contour low pressure bias is over the Indian Ocean today and is to build in coverage through the end of the model run with its eastern periphery easing east to 165E at the end of the model run. But its core is to show no signs of moving east locked over the Indian Ocean. East anomalies that have been previously solid in the Indian Ocean for over a year are migrating east through the West Pacific today and should continue tracking east then stabilizing setting up over the East Pacific late Sept and holding for the foreseeable future. The trend is turning towards La Nina. The good news is that at least at this early date, this might end up being a short lived event.
CFSv2 3 month forecast for 850 mb winds, MJO, Rossby etc - Alternate link
Subsurface Waters Temps
TAO Array: (9/26) Today in the far West Pacific the 30 deg isotherm was gone. The 29 deg isotherm was stable at 165E today. The 28 deg isotherm line was stable at 172W today. The 24 deg isotherm was stable at 135W today. Anomaly wise, warm anomalies +0-1 deg C were steady in the West Pacific pushing east to 160W at depth today. There was a pocket of cooler anomalies at -4 degs near 140W with cool anomalies filling the entire area east of there and bubbling up to the surface over that entire area. The hi-res GODAS animation posted 9/20 indicates the cool water bubble at depth was stronger and larger erupting to the surface from 165W eastward to Ecuador with a core to -4.5C but with cool anomalies even west to there to 170E. Warm anomalies were below the surface over the far West Pacific reaching east to 165W at depth (150m). The GODAS animation appears to be 1 week behind the TAO data but also is more detailed and accurately modeled.
Sea Level Anomalies: (9/20) Negative anomalies were forming a wave pushing west from the Galapagos to 160W with negative anomalies -5 to -15 cms. Negative anomalies were weak but still present along the coast of Peru up into Ecuador at -5 cms and then reaching north up to Baja and into Southern CA. But looking at the big picture, negative anomalies were forming a massive triangle from Baja south to Southern Chile and west out to the intersection of the dateline and the equator. No positive anomalies were over the equatorial Pacific, except from the dateline and points west of there.
Surface Water Temps
The more warm water in the equatorial East Pacific means more storm production in the North Pacific during winter months (roughly speaking). Cold water in that area has a dampening effect. Regardless of what the atmospheric models and surface winds suggest, actual water temperatures are a ground-truth indicator of what is occurring in the ocean. All data is from blended infrared and microwave sensors.
Hi-res Nino1.2 & 3.4: (9/24) The latest images indicate cold anomalies were on the equator from Ecuador west to the dateline and solid in density over that entire and large area. Markedly cold anomalies were imbedded between the Galapagos to 135W. Cool anomalies were also holding along the coasts of Chile and Peru. This clearly indicates a well developed version of La Nina. Warm water was all but gone off Central America north of the equator. Overall the cool pool on the equator was unmistakable and starting to show signs of rebuilding after previously being stalled.
Hi-res 7 day Trend (9/24): A mix of warming and cooling pockets were positioned on the equator from just west of Ecuador over the Galapagos and west to 160W. The trend was mostly neutral.
Hi-res Overview: (9/24) A stream of consistent cool water is well entrenched from Chile up to Peru and Ecuador then tracking west on the equator out to the dateline. A clear La Nina signal is depicted.
Nino1.2 Daily CDAS Index Temps: (9/26) Today's temps were steady at -1.808 degs after previously reaching a momentary low of -2.138 on 8/13. The trend has been steady but quite cold since June.
Nino 3.4 Daily CDAS Index Temps: (9/26) Temps were rising slightly to -0.865 today after dropping to -0.945 on 9/22, the lowest so far in the La Nina event. The previous low was -0.733 on 9/10. Temps have been on a steady decline since 7/25. Before that temps were stable between 6/27-7/24 at near 0.0. And before that temps were rising after bottoming out down at -0.595 on 5/27. Overall the trend appears to be in a steep decline.
CFSV2 Forecast for Nino3.4 Sea Surface Temp (SST) Anomalies & Current SST Anomalies
SST Anomaly Projections
CFSv2 Uncorrected Data (9/26) Actual temperatures were in the +0.65 deg range early this year through March, then started falling down to -0.20 in late-May before stabilizing near neutral into late June. They began falling again in July down to -0.80 mid-Aug. The forecast depicts a steady downward trend from here reaching down to -1.9 degs in late Nov holding in early Dec then beginning to rise in later Dec, rebuilding up to -0.15 degs in May.
IRI Consensus Plume: The August 21, 2020 Plume depicts temps are at -0.52 degs today, and are to fall in early Nov to -0.60 degs then moderating and starting to rise some to -0.35 by Jan 2021 and then neutral by March. The low outlier is a dynamic models (NASA GMAO). But a good plethora of models are now suggesting a developing modest La Nina. See chart here - link.
Atmospheric Coupling (Indicating the presence of El Nino in the atmosphere driven by the ocean):
Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) (negative is good, positive bad - this is a lagging indicator) (9/26): The daily index was positive today at 16.11. The 30 day average was rising today at +10.90. The 90 day average was rising to 7.32, suggesting a La Nina pattern was developing. This index is a lagging indicator.
ESPI Index (like SOI but based on satellite confirmed precipitation. Positive and/or rising is good, negative and/or falling is bad): June -0.67, May -0.46, April 2020 -0.69, March -0.09, Feb +0.65, Jan +0.42, This index was steady positive Aug 2018 through Feb 2020, and now is steady negative, but only weakly so.
Pacific Decadal Oscillation
Per NOAAs index recent values: Jan 2018 +0.29, Feb -0.19, Mar -0.61, April -0.89, May -0.69, June -0.85, July -0.09, Aug -0.43, Sept -0.46, Oct -0.75, Nov -0.78, Dec -0.12, Jan 2019 -0.18, Feb -0.50 Mar -0.23, April +0.10, May +0.14, June -0.11, July +0.44, Aug -0.14, Sept +0.05, Oct -0.96, Nov -0.28, Dec +0.01, Jan 2020 -1.17, This continues to look like the warm phase of the PDO. No consistently solid negative readings have occurred since Feb 2014
The Washington/JISAO index (Jan-Dec): Jan 2018 +0.70. Feb +0.37, Mar -0.05, April +0.11, May +0.11, June -0.04, July +0.11, Aug +0.18, Sept +0.09. No real negative readings have occurred since Dec 2013
The PDO turned from a 16 year negative run (Jan 98-Feb 2014) in early 2014 and has been positive ever since (other than a few months of negative readings in Fall 2016, the result of a turn towards La Nina). Looking at the long term record, it is premature to conclude that we have in-fact turned from the negative phase (La Nina 'like') to the positive phase (El Nino 'like'), but the data strongly suggests that could be a possibility. By the time it is confirmed (4-5 years out), we will be well into it.
See imagery in the ENSO Powertool
External Reference Material: El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), Kelvin Wave
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Surf Height-Swell Height Correlation Table