Tuesday, September 13, 2022
- Buoy 238 (Barbers Pt)/Buoy 239 (Lani): Seas were 3.6 ft @ 15.4 secs with swell 2.0 ft @ 15.5 secs from 194 degrees. Water temp 81.1 degs (Barbers Pt), 81.0 (Pearl Harbor 233), 81.1 (Lani 239).
- Buoy 106 (Waimea): Seas were 3.8 ft @ 9.1 secs with swell 2.6 ft @ 9.8 secs from 23 degrees. Water temp 81.0 degs.
- Buoy 46025 (Catalina RDG): Seas were 4.1 ft @ 12.8 secs with swell 2.7 ft @ 12.7 secs from 191 degrees. Wind east at 4-6 kts. Water temperature 71.8 degs, 72.5 (Topanga 103), 74.3 degs (Long Beach 215), 73.9 (Oceanside Offshore 045), 69.3 (Del Mar 153), 72.5 (Torrey Pines Outer 155). At Harvest Buoy (071) primary swell was 5.2 ft @ 6.3 secs from 315 degrees. At Santa Monica (028) swell was 2.7 ft @ 12.9 secs from 195 degrees. At Oceanside (045) swell was 1.9 ft @ 13.3 secs from 197 degrees. Southward at Pt Loma (191) swell was 3.2 ft @ 12.5 secs from 184 degrees. Water temp 70.5 degs.
- Buoy 46012 (Half Moon Bay)/029 (Pt Reyes): Seas were 4.2 ft @ 13.7 secs with swell 1.9 ft @ 13.7 secs from 164 degrees. Wind at buoy 46012 was northwest at 10-12 kts. Water temp 55.0 degs (Pt Reyes 029), 52.7 (Pt Reyes 46013), 58.1 (46026), 60.6 (SF Bar 142), 61.7 (Pt Santa Cruz 254) and 57.9 (Monterey Bay 46042).
Swell Classification Guidelines
Significant: Winter - Swell 8 ft @ 14 secs or greater (11+ ft faces) for 8+ hours (greater than double overhead).
Summer - Head high or better.
Advanced: Winter - Swell and period combination capable of generating faces 1.5 times overhead to double overhead (7-10 ft)
Summer - Chest to head high.
Intermediate/Utility Class: Winter - Swell and period combination generating faces at head high to 1.5 times overhead (4-7 ft).
Summer - Waist to chest high.
Impulse/Windswell: Winter - Swell and period combination generating faces up to head high (1-4 ft) or anything with a period less than 11 secs.
Summer - up to waist high swell. Also called 'Background' swell.
Surf Heights for Hawaii should be consider 'Hawaiian Scale' if period exceeds 14 secs.
On Tuesday (9/13) North and Central CA had set waves at thigh to maybe waist high coming from the northwest and warbled with small whitecaps coming from the northwest. Protected breaks were flat and clean. At Santa Cruz surf was waist high on the rare sets and clean and soft. In Southern California/Ventura waves were waist high and lined up and soft with some warble intermixed and northwest winds blowing modestly. Central Orange County had sets at head high and lined up with decent form but a little ruffled from south wind. South Orange County's best summertime breaks had sets at head high to 1 ft overhead and lined up with good form and clean with light winds with a little texture on top. North San Diego had sets at waist to chest high and lined up with good form with fairly clean conditions. Hawaii's North Shore had a few waist high waves at top spots and fairly clean. The South Shore had sets at head high to 1 foot overhead and lined up and clean with good form. The East Shore had windswell at waist high and fairly chopped early from moderate east trades.
See QuikCASTs for the 5 day surf overview or read below for the detailed view.
On Tuesday (9/13) Hawaii was still getting swell from a gale that developed south of New Zealand Sat-Mon (9/5) producing with 28-32 ft seas aimed northeast. And California was poised to get that same swell later today. Another gale developed in the Central South Pacific moving to the Southeast Pacific Thurs-Fri (9/9) with 28 ft seas building to 33 ft aimed somewhat to the northeast. Swell arriving in CA for the weekend. And another system is forecast developing under New Zealand on Wed (9/14) with 41 ft sea aimed northeast. And secondary fetch from that system is to develop over the Central South Pacific Sat-Sun (9/18) with up to 30 ft seas aimed northeast. Summer continues. Nothing is forecast up north yet.
See all the details below...
SHORT- TERM FORECAST
Current marine weather and wave analysis plus forecast conditions for the next 72 hours
On Tuesday (9/13) no swell was in the water relative to Hawaii or the US West Coast.
Over the next 72 hours no swell producing fetch of interest is forecast.
North Pacific Animations: Jetstream - Surface Pressure/Wind - Sea Height - Surf Height
No tropical systems of interest are being monitored at this time.
California Nearshore Forecast
- Wed AM (9/14) northwest winds to be 5-10 kts for North and Central CA and 15 kts for Pt Conception early. In the afternoon northwest winds to be 10 kts for North and Central CA. No windswell production forecast.
- Thurs AM (9/15) northwest winds to be 5-10 kts for North CA and Central CA early but 15 kts for Pt Conception. In the afternoon northwest winds to be 10+ kts for all of North CA and 15 kts south of Monterey Bay. No windswell production forecast.
- Fri AM (9/16) northwest winds to be 15 kts for North CA and 20 kts for Central CA south of Monterey Bay early. In the afternoon northwest winds to be 15-20 kts for North CA and 20-25 kts south of Monterey Bay. Minimal short period windswell production possible.
- Sat AM (9/17) northwest winds are forecast at 15-20 kts early for North CA and northwest winds are forecast at 20 kts mainly south of Monterey Bay for Central CA. In the afternoon northwest winds to be 15 kts for North CA and 20 kts south of Monterey Bay. Limited short period junky windswell possible.
- Sun AM (9/18) weak low pressure is to develop off North CA early with light winds for North and Central CA. In the afternoon the low is to be just off Monterey Bay with northwest winds 10 kts for North CA and 10 kts for most of Central CA. No windswell production forecast.
- Mon AM (9/19) the low moves inland with high pressure building in with northwest winds 15 kts solid for both North and Central CA. in the afternoon northwest winds build to 20 kts. Windswell developing.
- Tues AM (9/20) northwest winds to be 20 kts just off the coast of North and Central CA but maybe only 10 kts between the Golden Gate and Monterey Bay. In the afternoon northwest winds are to be 20-25 kts for North CA and 15-20 kts for Central CA. Windswell building.
Total snow accumulation for the next 10 days respectively for Squaw Valley, Sugar Bowl, Kirkwood and Mammoth are projected at 0.3, 0.5, 0.3, and 0 inches on Sun (9/18).
Freezing level for the Tioga Pass Road is 12,250 ft today and is forecast holding before falling to 8.500 ft on late Sun evening (9/18) more or less holding into Wed (9/21) then rising. The start of a Fall looks to be coming for the Sierra.
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Tioga Pass/Pacific Crest Trail intersection forecast: Temps - Freeze Level
More locations here (scroll down to 'Resort Snow Forecasts>Central CA or North CA Caltrans & Backcountry')
Snow Models: http://www.stormsurf.com/mdls/menu_snow.html (Scroll down for Resort specific forecasts).
On Tuesday (9/13) the influential southern branch of the jetstream was ridging hard south over the Central South Pacific pushing over Antarctic Ice and east to the Southeast Pacific offering no support for gale development. Over the next 72 hours a trough is forecast developing under New Zealand on Wed (9/14) being fed by 140 kt winds lifting decently to the northeast while tracking east into Fri (9/16) providing decent support for gale development. Beyond 72 hours a secondary trough is to form over the Central South Pacific on Sat (9/17) pushing east while being fed by 110-120 kt winds perhaps offering some more support for gale development while pushing east to the Southeast Pacific on Mon (9/19) offering yet more hope. But over the Southwest Pacific the jet is to be in a zonal flow down at 67S tracking due east offering no support for gale development.
Swell from a gale previously under New Zealand is hitting Hawaii and is supposed to be arriving in CA imminently (see New Zealand Gale below). And yet another gale formed over the Southeast Pacific with fetch aimed northeast targeting California with secondary and tertiary fetch following behind (see Another Southeast Pacific Gale below).
Over the next 72 hours yet another gale is forecast developing under New Zealand tracking northeast (see Another New Zealand Gale below).
New Zealand Gale
And a broad gale started developing south of New Zealand on Sat PM (9/3) producing 900 nmiles of southwest winds at 35-40 kts aimed north targeting primarily the Southern tip of New Zealand with seas building from 31 ft at 50.25S 165.25E and shadowed by New Zealand relative to Hawaii and CA. On Sun AM (9/4) a broad fetch of 40-45 kts south winds were free and clear of New Zealand with 29 ft seas at 48.25S 177.5E aimed northeast. In the evening a moderate fetch of south to southwest winds at 35-40 kt were easing east with seas 32 ft at 56S 174E aimed northeast. On Mon AM (9/5) fetch was fading from 30 kts from the southwest with seas 29 ft at 52.25S 177.75W aimed northeast. Fetch was gone after that. Modest swell is tracking northeast towards Hawaii and the US West Coast.
Hawaii: Swell building on Sun (9/11) to 1.6 ft @ 16 secs later (2.5 ft). Swell fading on Mon (9/12) from 1.9 ft @ 15 secs early (3.0 ft). Swell continues on Tues (9/13) from 2.0 ft @ 15 secs early (3.0 ft). Dribbles on Wed (9/14) fading from 1.6 ft @ 13-14 secs (2.0 ft). Swell Direction: 206-202 degrees
Southern CA: Expect swell arrival on Tues (9/13) building to 1.2 ft @ 17-18 secs later (2.0 ft). Swell building on Wed (9/14) to 1.6 ft @ 16-17 secs later (2.5 ft). Swell fading some on Thurs (9/15) from 1.7 ft @ 15-16 secs early (2.5-3.0 ft). Swell fading on Fri (9/16) from 1.5 ft @ 14-15 secs (2.0 ft). Swell Direction: 213 degrees
North CA: Expect swell arrival on Tues (9/13) building to 1.3 ft @ 17-18 secs later (2.0-2.5 ft). Swell building on Wed (9/14) to 1.8 ft @ 16-17 secs midday (3.0 ft). Swell fading some on Thurs (9/15) from 2.0 ft @ 15-16 secs early (3.0 ft). Swell fading on Fri (9/16) from 1.8 ft @ 14-15 secs (2.5 ft). Swell Direction: 213 degrees
Another Southeast Pacific Gale
A gale started developing southwest of New Zealand just off the Ross Ice Shelf on Thurs AM (9/8) producing southwest winds at 40 kts over a solid area aimed northeast with seas building from 27 ft at 59S 166W aimed northeast. In the evening southwest winds were lifting northeast fast at 35-40 kts with seas 27-28 ft at 58.25S 150W aimed northeast. The gale was building Fri AM (9/9) with a broad area of 40-50 kt southwest winds over the Southeast Pacific with seas to 29 ft at 55.5S 134W aimed northeast. In the evening the gale was moving over the far Southeast Pacific and almost out of the Southern CA swell window with 40-45 kt southwest winds and seas 33 ft at 58S 120W aimed northeast. Fetch was almost east of the SCal swell window on Sat AM (9/10) with 45 kts southwest winds and seas fading from 28-30 ft at 60S 118W aimed northeast. The gale is was east of the SCal swell window beyond. Something to monitor.
Varying degrees of secondary fetch continued over the far Southeast Pacific just barely in the SCal swell window on Sun AM (9/11) with seas 37 ft at 58S 123.5W aimed east. That fetch is to be east of the SCal swell window in the evening. And mid Mon (9/12) another small fetch is to produce 32 ft seas at 52.25S 121.5W east-northeast briefly. More small swell to result. Something to monitor.
Southern CA: Expect swell arrival on Sat (9/17) building to 1.3 ft @ 17 secs later (2.0 ft). Swell building into mid Sun (9/18) at 1.8 ft @ 15-16 secs (2.5-3.0 ft). Swell fading some on Mon (9/19) at 1.7 ft @ 14-15 secs (2.5 ft). Another pulse is forecast for Tues (9/20) building to 2.0 ft @ 15 secs later (3.0 ft). Swell fading Wed (9/21) from 1.8 ft @ 14-15 secs (2.5 ft). Swell dissipating on Thurs (9/22) from 1.6 ft @ 14 secs early (2.0 ft). Swell Direction: 196 degrees moving to 190 degrees
North CA: Expect swell arrival on Sat (9/17) building to 1.2 ft @ 17-18 secs later (2.0 ft). Swell building through Sun (9/18) to 1.6 ft @ 16 secs (2.5 ft). Swell holding on Mon (9/19) at 2.0 ft @ 14-15 secs (2.5-3.0 ft). Another pulse is forecast for Tues (9/20) building to 2.0 ft @ 15-16 secs later (3.0 ft). Swell fading Wed (9/21) from 1.9 ft @ 14-15 secs (2.5 ft). Swell dissipating on Thurs (9/22) from 1.6 ft @ 14 secs early (2.0 ft). Swell Direction: 193 degrees moving to 187 degrees
Another New Zealand Gale
A primer gale was developing under New Zealand on Tues AM (9/13) producing 35-40 kt southwest winds with seas building from 25 ft over a small area at 59S 176E aimed northeast. Fetch is to be fading in the evening from 35-40 kts over a small area aimed northeast with seas fading from 28 ft at 61S 172W impacting the Ross Ice Shelf but serving to rough up the oceans surface there. Then on Wed AM (9/14) the main event is to set up with a broad area of southwest winds building to 45-50 kts under New Zealand with seas 34 ft at 58S 166.75E aimed northeast. In the evening seas southwest winds to fade to 40 kts but over still decent sized area aimed northeast with seas 42 ft at 57S 176.75E aimed northeast. On Thurs AM (9/15) fetch is to fade while pushing northeast from 30 kts from the southwest with seas fading from 35 ft at 54.5S 173W. Fetch is to be fading in the evening from 30-35 kts with seas 27 ft at 55S 162.75W aimed northeast. Something to monitor.
Oahu: Rough data suggests swell arrival on Wed (9/21) building to 1.6 ft @ 18-19 secs late (2.5-3.0 ft). Swell building on Thurs (9/22) to 2.0 ft @ 16-17 secs later (3.0 ft). Something to monitor. Swell Direction: 189 degrees
South Pacific Animations: Jetstream - Surface Pressure/Wind - Sea Height - Surf Height
Marine weather and forecast conditions 3-10 days into the future
Beyond 72 hours no swell producing fetch of interest is forecast.
Beyond 72 hours perhaps a secondary fetch is to develop under New Zealand on Fri AM (9/16) lifting northeast with winds 40-45 kts over a broad area and seas 29-30 ft just north of the Ross Ice Shelf at 61.25S 178E aimed northeast. In the evening fetch is to push northeast at 40 kts with seas 33 ft at 58.75S 170W aimed northeast. Fetch is to continue Sat AM (9/17) at 40 kts from the southwest with seas 29 ft at 58S 158.25W over a decent sized area. Fetch is to hold coverage in the evening at 35-40 kts with seas 27 ft at 54.75S 153.25W aimed northeast. On Sun AM (9/18) fetch is to be over the Southeast Pacific fading from 30-35 kts with seas fading from 25 ft at 56S 139.25W aimed northeast. Something to monitor.
Upwelling Phase Underway
Models Suggesting this to be the Final La Nina Surge
Cool subsurface water volume peaked under the equatorial Pacific on 10/15/21, faded in May and June 2022, but is stating to rebuild in late July. A Kelvin Wave traversed the equatorial Pacific May-June, but was discharged by late July. The SOI appears to be past its peak. La Nina conditions are projected reinforcing in Nino3.4 in Fall then fading by Winter turning neutral. Overall cool water volume over the entire equatorial Pacific is to be fading steadily from here forward. The outlook is turning more optimistic.
The Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a periodic weather cycle that tracks east along the equator circumnavigating the globe. It is characterized in it's Inactive Phase by enhanced trade winds and dry weather over the part of the equator it is in control of, and in it's Active Phase by slackening if not an outright reversing trade winds while enhancing precipitation. The oscillation occurs in roughly 20-30 day cycles (Inactive for 20-30 days, then Active for 20-30 days) over any single location on the planet, though most noticeable in the Pacific. During the Active Phase in the Pacific the MJO tends to support the formation of stronger and longer lasting gales resulting in enhanced potential for the formation of swell producing storms. Prolonged and consecutive Active MJO Phases in the Pacific help support the formation of El Nino. During the Inactive Phase the jet stream tends to split resulting in high pressure and less potential for swell producing storm development. Wind anomalies in the Kelvin Wave Generation Area (KWGA) are key for understanding what Phase the MJO is in over the Pacific. The KWGA is located on the equator from 135E-170W and 5 degs north and south (or on the equator from New Guinea east to the dateline). West wind anomalies in the KWGA suggest the Active Phase of the MJO in the Pacific, and east anomalies suggests the Inactive Phase. In turn the Active Phase strengthens and the Inactive Phase weakens the jetstream, which in turn enhances or dampens storm production respectively in the Pacific.And the El Nino/La Nino cycle (collectively know as ENSO - El Nino Southern Oscillation) is a less frequent (about once every 7 years) but more impactful cycle that affects world wide weather. Specifically, strong El Nino events promote storm production in the Pacific while La Nina events suppress storm production. These therefore have a significant impact on the production of swell and surf. The paragraphs below analyze the state of the MJO and ENSO in the Pacific and provide forecasts for upcoming activity (or inactivity depending on the state and interaction of these two oscillations).
Overview: In 2019 warm equatorial waters were fading, and by August a tongue of cool water was tracking west on the equator from Ecuador over the Galapagos reaching to a point nearly south of Hawaii. A bit of a recovery tried to occur during Fall of 2019, with weak warm water building in the Nino 1.2 region, but cool water held in a pool off Peru. By April 2020 a cool pool was starting to build, forming a well defined cool tongue that evolved into La Nina, with it fully developing through July 2020. A slow dissolving of La Nina started in March 2021 with 2 Kelvin Waves sweeping east and arriving over the Galapagos in June. Weak warming set up over the equator with no cool waters present. NOAA declared La Nina dead. But cold water returned in July 2021 and a second pulse of La Nina developed through the Winter of 2022 and is continuing today, though possibly weaker with its foundation appearing to be in decline.
LONG-RANGE PACIFIC STORM AND SWELL GENERATION POTENTIAL FORECAST
Fall/Winter 2022 = 4.0 (California & Hawaii)
Rating based on a 1-10 scale: 1 being the lowest (small and infrequent surf conditions), 5 being normal/average, and 10 being extraordinary (frequent events of large, long period swells)
Rationale: It was assumed that the moderate La Nina from the Winter of 2020/2021 was on the wane and that a return to neutral ENSO state would set up over the Pacific Basin through the summer of 2021. But La Nina made a strong return by the end of Sept much like what the CFS model suggested would happen and a full double dip pattern took hold through the Winter of 21/22. But a quick fade is forecast as we move into late December 2022 with the CFS predicting a return to a neutral wind anomaly pattern and the low pressure bias making headway in to the KWGA in early Jan. Still it will take some time for the atmosphere to fully respond, resulting in a less than normal swell production forecast especially for Fall into early Winter 2022. But by later in Jan or early Feb 2023 a return to a more normal pattern might take hold. As a result a significantly reduced number of storm days and storm intensity is expected Oct 22-Jan 23, resulting in a below normal level of swells, with swell being below normal duration and period. But by Feb 2023, the number of storm days, intensity and duration of those storms should start improving as La Nina fades out. The net result is we're currently thinking a near normal number of swells with normal size and duration is to result, but all focused sometime after Jan 2023. The swell pattern will be below normal before Jan and above normal after Jan 23 with the average of the two being 'normal'. Of course this is all highly speculative at this early date.
KWGA/Equatorial Surface Wind Analysis (KWGA - Kelvin Wave Generation Area - The area 5 degrees north and south of the equator from 170W to 135E)
Analysis (TAO Buoys): As of (9/12) 5 day average winds were strong from the east over the Eastern equatorial Pacific and strong east over the Central Pacific and strong east over the KWGA. Anomalies were modest east over the East equatorial Pacific and modest east over the Central Pacific and moderate east over the KWGA. (Note: These are 5 day average winds, versus realtime, so they lag what is happening today (by about 2.5 days).
1 Week Forecast (GFS Model): (9/13) East anomalies were weak to modest today filling the KWGA. The 7 day forecast calls for no change with modest east anomalies holding over KWGA focused at 170E and unchanged through the last day of the model run (9/20).
Kelvin Wave Generation Area wind monitoring model: West and East
- MJO/WWB/Wind Projections:
OLR Models: (9/12) A neutral MJO signal was indicated today over the KWGA. The statistical model indicates a neutral MJO holding over the KWGA for the next 5 days then turning to a modest Inactive Phase on day 10 and building some more on day 15 of the model run. The dynamic model suggests a neutral MJO signal holding for the next 15 days.
Phase Diagrams 2 week forecast (ECMF and GEFS): (9/13) The statistical model depicts the Active signal was very weak over the West Pacific today and is to track east over the East Indian Ocean 15 days out at weak status. The dynamic model suggest the Active Phase only making it to the Africa or the East Atlantic.
40 day Upper Level Model (assumed to be a statistical mode and 1 week ahead of what is occurring at the surface): (9/13) A very weak Active MJO signal (wet air) was over the KWGA with a weak Inactive MJO (dry air) over Central America today. The forecast depicts the Active Phase moving east over the KWGA and exceedingly weak and then into Central America on 10/8. An Inactive Phase (dry air) is to start building over the over KWGA on 10/3 pushing east and weak filling the equatorial Pacific through the end of the model run on 10/23.
4 Week CFS Model (850 mb wind): (9/12) The Active Phase of the MJO was trying to build over the KWGA today but with moderate east anomalies filling the KWGA. Looking forward the Active Phase of the MJO is to try and push through the KWGA through 9/20 but getting destructively interfered with by the La Nina base state with weak to modest east anomalies remaining in control of the KWGA. The Inactive Phase is to do the same thing on 9/29, but making it into the KWGA and constructively integrating with the La Nina base state amplifying east anomalies 170E from 9/24 through the end of the model run on 10/8 and strongest near 10/3.
3 Month CFS Model (850 mb wind): (9/13) - using the 5th ensemble member - the mean of the 4 individual members which are all from the 00Z run - 1 run per day):
Today a pulse of the Inactive Phase is fading out over the KWGA. A weak pulse of the Active Phase was building over the West KWGA today and is to continue through 9/21 then fading with weak west anomalies building over portions of the West KWGA. A weak pulse of the Inactive Phase is to follow 9/22-10/15 with neutral anomalies building over the bulk of the KWGA to the dateline and east anomalies east of there. Then on 10/7 a coherent Active Phase of the MJO is to start pushing through the KWGA in earnest and in control through the end of the model run on 12/11 with west anomalies moving from the Maritime Continent 10/7 bleeding east to about the dateline on 10/20 and building more filling the KWGA on 10/31 at moderate status and holding beyond. This would be a huge change if it develops as forecast. The low pass filter indicates a high pressure bias with 2 contour lines centered at 180W with its western perimeter at 155E today. The second contour is to build into October then collapse on 11/28 with the western edge of the high pressure bias retrograding west to 145E at 10/15 then possibly starting to east east from there to 150E at the end of the model run. A broad double contour low pressure bias is established centered over the West Maritime Continent at 90E with it's leading edge at 130E today but is forecast retrograding to 125E on 10/10 then starting to ease east slightly at the end of the model run. Of note, east anomalies which are and have been centered at 180W and are to continue to have some solid influence over the KWGA into early Oct, then dissipate completely by 10/19 with west anomalies taking over the KWGA beyond. This would be a huge step forward, if it develops.
CFSv2 3 month forecast for 850 mb winds, MJO, Rossby etc - Alternate link
Subsurface Waters Temps
TAO Array: (9/13) Today in the far West Pacific the 29 degree isotherm was gone, previously at 171E. The 28 deg isotherm line was building east slightly to 171E. The 26 degree isotherm was steady at 147W today. The 24 deg isotherm had backtracked from Ecuador to 133W and was holding at 130W today. Anomaly wise, warm anomalies +2 deg C were in a pocket in the far West Pacific down 150m with it's leading edge stuck at 155W. A pocket of cool anomalies at -4 degs C were centered at 139W and filling the area from 153W and points east of there. The remnants of a previous Kevin Wave were at +1 degs in the East Pacific off Ecuador starting at 115W. The hi-res GODAS animation posted 9/5 indicates the same broad area of warm anomalies in the west pushing east to 155W and far warmer. A cool pocket was filling the area east of 155W and reaching the surface. The GODAS animation appears to be 1 week behind the TAO data but also is more detailed and accurately modeled.
Sea Level Anomalies: (9/5) Sea heights were stabilizing over the Equatorial Pacific. A broad pocket of positive anomalies were over the equator in the far West Pacific reaching east to only 165E. A pocket of negative anomalies were holding in intensity from Ecuador to 155W with 2 cores at -15 cms, a small one and shrinking one at 140W and a second broader one at -120W. Per the Upper Ocean Heat Anomaly Histogram cool anomalies were positioned in the Central Equatorial Pacific between 157W to 100W and stationary. A cool cycle is underway. It is already longer in duration than the previous cool pulse. If something doesn't change soon, La Nina will last through the Winter and the models will all be wrong.
Surface Water Temps
The more warm water in the equatorial East Pacific means more storm production in the North Pacific during winter months (roughly speaking). Cold water in that area has a dampening effect. Regardless of what the atmospheric models and surface winds suggest, actual water temperatures are a ground-truth indicator of what is occurring in the ocean. All data is from blended infrared and microwave sensors.
Hi-res Nino1.2 & 3.4 Qualitative Analysis: (9/12) The latest images depict a broad generic pool of cool water extending west from Chile and Peru to the dateline and filling well south of the equator. The coolest water was on the equator between 115W-135W. An area of warm water was present on the equator from Ecuador west to 140W but mostly just north of the equator starting at 2N. A weak area of warm water was present north of the equator (15 deg N) extending off mainland Mexico to 145W. Overall this indicates the late stages of La Nina.
Hi-res 7 day Trend (9/12): A thin line of cool anomalies were on the equator between Ecuador to 140W. The trend was clearly towards cooling.
Hi-res Overview: (9/12) Persistent cool waters cover a large area from Ecuador to 160E on and south of the equator from South America down at 20S with the coolest waters between 110W to 135W on the equator. Warmer than normal waters were on the equator in the east aligned in a thin stream from Ecuador to 110W starting on the equator and points north of there. La Nina remains in control over the East Equatorial Pacific and the density and intensity of the cooling appears to be building some on the equator with warm water from a previous Kelvin Wave breaking up over the East equatorial Pacific.
Nino1.2 Daily CDAS Index Temps: (9/13) (These temps are biased high by about 0.2 degs compared to official sources). Today's temps were steady at -1.150 degs and have been in the -1.0 range since 7/29. Temp were down on 7/20 to -1.6 degs. Previously temps were stable near -1.4 degrees 6/12 through 7/27. Peaks in that time frame were -1.189 (7/7), -1.534 (7/5). Previously temps were at -1.822 on 6/9 after being up to -1.506 (5/21) and that after hovering around -2.0 degs since 4/21/22. Prior to that temps were fading after peaking at +0.760 on 3/18. Temps had been moving upwards since 2/20, and beat a previous high of -0.650 degs on 1/9 and that after being down at -1.871 on 1/3/22 and -1.954 on 12/18/21, the lowest this year so far. Previously temps dropped on 11/24/21 at -1.700, the lowest in months after previously toggling steady at about -0.6 degs from mid Aug to Oct 6, then falling from there. That year temps bottomed out at -2.138 on 8/13/20. The longterm trend has been steadily downward.
Nino 3.4 Daily CDAS Index Temps: (9/13) (These temps are biased high by about 0.2 degs). Today's temps were steady at -0.983 and have been in the -1.0 range since 8/16. Temps had fallen since 7/15 reaching La Nina threshold on 7/27 after being more or less steady the previous 3 weeks peaking at -0.25 on 7/14 and -0.275 on 7/5. Previously temps had been on an upward trend since 5/15/22 rising to -0.414 degs (6/19) and -0.493 on 6/9, the first reading above La Nina threshold values since Sept 2021. Temps were down to -0.929 (5/2/22) and that after rising to a peak at -0.704 on 3/27 and had been on a gentle rising trend since falling to -1.012 on 3/8. Previously temps were rising slightly to -0.505 on 2/2 and that after reaching a peak low of -1.096 on 1/3/22 beating the previous low of -1.080 on 11/2/21, the lowest in a year. Prior to that temps had been in a freefall starting from the -0.175 range in early Sept/21. Before that temps peaked up at 7/1/21 +0.332, the highest in a year. Temps previously had been steady near -0.222 since early March 2021. Temps bottomed out at -1.654 on 11/3/2020.
CFSV2 Forecast for Nino3.4 Sea Surface Temp (SST) Anomalies & Current SST Anomalies
SST Anomaly Projections
CFSv2 Uncorrected Data
Previous - Temps rose in early Nov 2020 after bottoming out at -1.25 degs, up to -0.01 degs in mid-June 2021 then fading to -1.05 degs in mid-Nov then rebuilding to -0.7 in mid Feb 2022 then fading to -1.1 degs in May before starting an upward climb peaking in mid-June at -0.65 degs and mid July at -0.55 degs. A steady decline set in after that falling to -1.05 degs in Aug.
Forecast (9/13) - Temps are to be falling from about -1.0 degs in Sept to -1.35 degs in Nov then start a quick rise beyond and reaching above the La Nina threshold in Feb 2023 and up to +0.50 degs in May and heading up from there presumably. This model suggests we are going to steadily transition towards ENSO neutral in Dec. The PDF Corrected forecast suggests temps bottomed out at -1.00 in mid Aug and are to hold, falling slightly to -1.15 degs in Nov then starting a steady upward climb rising above La Nina threshold in Feb and rising from there forward to +0.45 degs in April/May. According to this version of the model we will hold in weak La Nina conditions through Fall before starting a trend towards neutrality in Dec. That said - the surface temp coverage model suggests a temps holding steady through Oct-Nov. then a steady erosion of the coldest waters south of Nino3.4 (down at 20S) is to begin. By Dec a clear discharge of La Nina is to begin with near neutral temps prevailing over the entire equatorial Pacific and turning fully neutral in Feb and beyond into Feb. The greater equatorial Pacific cool signature looks to hold through mid-Oct then quickly dissolving beyond.
IRI Consensus Plume: The August 19, 2022 Plume depicts temps are -0.809 degs today. Temps to fall more to -0.862 in Oct then are to warm to the La Nina threshold at -0.589 in Dec and -0.393 in Jan rising to +0.182 in April. This model suggests a continuation of minimal La Nina temps through early Dec then transitioning to ENSO neutral. This model is in line with the CFS model.
See chart here - link.
Atmospheric Coupling (Indicating the presence of El Nino in the atmosphere driven by the ocean):
Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) (negative is good, positive bad - all but the Daily Index was a lagging indicator):
Today (9/9) the Daily Index was rising at +19.97. Previous peaks were at +33.57 (5/24), +40.77 (5/10), +31.44 (4/27), +31.80 (4/6), +27.33 (1/31) and +46.71 (12/26). The trend has been solidly positive but starting in July weakness is starting to take hold. Previous other notable peaks were +30.98 (11/26), +36.90 (9/28), +27.75 ( 9/13) and +37.86 (7/15).
The 30 day average was rising at +10.29 after falling to +6.89 on 7/29. It peaked at +20.34 (5/12) the highest in a year and beating last years high of +19.51 (1/14).
The 90 day average was steady at +11.47 previously at +12.92 on 8/11 and that after peaking at +18.40 (7/2) beating it's previous peak of +16.86 (5/31), the highest in a year. It previously peaked at +9.80 (9/21) after falling to it's lowest point in a year at +1.06 (6/9). The 90 day average peaked at +15.75 (2/23/21 - clearly indicative of La Nina then). This index is a lagging indicator but suggest La Nina is returning.
Pacific Decadal Oscillation
The PDO theoretically turned from a 16 year negative run (Jan 98-Feb 2014) in early 2014 and was positive till Dec 2019, but has been negative ever since, driven by recent La Nina conditions. In May-July 2021 it was the most negative its been in the -1.80 to -2.04 range since Sept 2012 (-2.99) and then fell to -3.16 in Oct 2021 (the lowest since July 1933) then settled at -2.72 in Nov and Dec 2021. Looking at the long term record, it seems likely we are still in the Cool Phase of the PDO (La Nina 'like') with no signs of moving to the positive/warm phase (El Nino 'like').
See imagery in the ENSO Powertool
Stormsurf Video Surf Forecast for this week. See it Here
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NBC News - Climate Change and Surfing: https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/science/climate-change-good-surfing-other-sports-not-so-much-ncna1017131
Mavericks & Stormsurf on HBO Sports with Bryant Gumbel https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=luQSYf5sKjQ
Pieces Featuring Stormsurf:
Time Zone Converter By popular demand we've built and easy to use time convert that transposes GMT time to whatever time zone you are located. It's ion left hand column on every page on the site near the link to the swell calculator.
Surf Height-Swell Height Correlation Table