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Pacific Storm and Surf Forecast
Updated: Saturday, April 19, 2014 8:54 AM
Buoys: Northern CA - Southern CA - Hawaii - Gulf of Alaska - Pacific Northwest
Buoy Forecast:
Northern CA - Southern CA - Hawaii - Gulf of Alaska - Pacific Northwest
Pacific Links:  Atmospheric Models - Buoy Data - Current Weather - Wave Models
Forecast Archives: Enter Here
A chronology of recent Mavericks Underground forecasts. Once you enter, just click on the HTML file forecast you want to review (e.g. 073199.html equals July 31, 1999). To view the maps that correspond to that forecast date, select the html file labeled 073199 maps.html
Swell Potential Rating = 2.0 - California & 2.3 - Hawaii
Using the 'Winter' Scale
(See Swell Category Table link at bottom of page)
Probability for presence of largest swells in near-shore waters of NCal, SCal or Hawaii.    

Issued for Week of Monday 4/14 thru Sun 4/20

Swell Potential Rating Categories
5 = Good probability for 3 or more days of Significant swell
4 = Good probability for 1-2 days of Significant swell
3 = Good probability for 3 or more days of Intermediate/Advanced swell
2 = Good probability for  1-2 days of
Intermediate/Advanced swell
1 = Good probability for 3 or more days of Impulse or Windswell
0 = Low probability for 1-2 days of Impulse or Windswell   

Gulf Swell Pushing Towards Central CA
Large Gale Building in the Southeast Pacific - Another Up North on the Dateline Too


Swell Classification Guidelines

Significant: Winter - Swell 8 ft @ 14 secs or greater (11+ ft faces) for 8+ hours (greater than double overhead).
- Head high or better.
Advanced: Winter - Swell and period combination capable of generating faces 1.5 times overhead to double overhead (7-10 ft)
Summer - Chest to head high.
Intermediate/Utility Class: Winter - Swell and period combination generating faces at head high to 1.5 times overhead (4-7 ft).
- Waist to chest high.
Impulse/Windswell: Winter - Swell and period combination generating faces up to head high (1-4 ft) or anything with a period less than 11 secs.
- up to waist high swell. Also called 'Background' swell.


Current Conditions
On Saturday
(4/19) in North and Central CA local north windswell and west swell was producing waves in the waist to chest high range and heavily textured early and crumbled. Down in Santa Cruz surf was thigh to waist high and clean and generally weak. In Southern California up north surf was thigh to maybe waist high and clean but weak from windswell. Down south waves were coming from the south and the north at chest high or so on the sets and clean. Hawaii's North Shore was near flat with sets knee high and clean. The South Shore was flat. Exposed breaks on the East Shore were getting east windswell at up to waist high and chopped from east trades.   

See QuikCASTs for the 5 day surf overview or read below for the detailed view.

Meteorological Overview
At present swell from a small gale previously off Japan was hitting California but mostly dominated there by locally generated north windswell. A new low tracked over the dateline and built in the Eastern Gulf on Fri PM (4/19) with up to 36 ft seas. Late season swell is expected Sunday in the Pacific Northwest down into Central CA. And yet another small gale is forecast over the dateline Sun PM (4/20) with 27 ft seas mainly targeting Hawaii. Down south a tiny gale developed in the far Southeast Pacific on Fri-Sat (4/12) generating a small area of 34 ft seas aimed north. Small swell was expected arriving in SCal by Sat AM, but there's no sign of it just yet. A larger gale was building in the Southeast Pacific on Fri (4/18) with up to 40 ft seas forecast Sat (4/19) late morning aimed best at Peru with sideband energy possible for Southern CA. This is another upgrade from previous projections.  After that both the North and South Pacific are to settle down.       

Details below...

Note: NDBC has updated their buoy maintenance .cgian. 46012, 46013, 46026 are scheduled for maintenance in May and 46014 in Aug 2014. There is no schedule for 46059 or 46006. Most operations are focused on repairing the TAO array (ENSO monitoring buoys on the equator) and fortunately the first set of those buoys (at 95W and 110W) are back in operation (see MJO/ENSO update below). TAO Buoys at 125W are no  longer scheduled. Instead NOAA will focus on buoys at 140W and 170W in September. 

Current marine weather and wave analysis.cgius forecast conditions for the next 72 hours

North Pacific

Jetstream - On Saturday (4/19) the jetstream was pushing flat off Japan centered near 35N tracking flat east the whole way across the Pacific pushing into south Oregon. A small pocket of wind energy was just off Japan at 130 kts forming a small trough there while another smaller trough with 120 kts winds was just off the Washington coast. There was limited support for gale development in both troughs. Over the next 72 hours the same basic pattern is to continue but with a bit of a ridge developing in the Western Gulf and the jet tracking up to the Eastern Aleutians late Sun (4/20). The trough off Japan is to push east to just west of the dateline with 130 kt winds and a new trough is to open up in the Eastern Gulf with 140 kt winds, pushing into Northern CSA on Tuesday (4/22). Limited support for gale development is expected from north troughs. Beyond 72 hours the jet is to hold together in one cohesive flow with a broad trough digging in off Japan but winds only 100 kts on Thurs (4/24) then gradually ridging northeast up to the Eastern Aleutians then falling into another broad but weak trough off the Pacific Northwest with winds building to 130 kts winds there by late Fri (4/25). Limited support for gale development in both troughs.

Surface Analysis  - On Saturday (4/19) swell from a gale previously off Japan was supposedly hitting Central CA but was very inconsistent and weak. Also a new gale had built tracking from the dateline to a point just off British Columbia (See East Gulf Gale below). And yet a third system was poised to develop near the dateline (See Dateline Gale below). Otherwise no swell producing weather systems of interest are forecast.


East Gulf Gale
A gale was trying to organize while tracking east over the dateline Thurs AM (4/17) with 35 kt northwest winds building near 37N 173W. 20 ft seas were modeled back at 36N 176W (315 degs HI). By evening the fetch held while tracking east with almost 40 kt northwest winds developing and seas 19 ft at 39N 165W (345 degs HI) and starting to target the US West Coast better. The gale was building Fri AM (4/18) as it moved into the Gulf of Alaska with 40 kt northwest winds and seas building from 23 ft at 42N 155W (290 degs NCal). 50 kt northwest winds developed in the Eastern Gulf over a solid area by evening with seas building to 34 ft at 44N 145W (300 degs NCal) with 30 ft seas down to 43N (295 degs NCal). Fetch was fading some to 45 kts Sat AM (4/19) while lifting north off British Columbia aimed at Washington and Oregon with seas peaking at 35 ft at 47N 140W (309 degs NCal). This system is to be fading while circulating off North Canada on Sat PM with seas fading from 32 ft just off Northern British Columbia targeting mainly Vancouver Island down into Washington. No additional swell production is forecast. This systems has done well considering the year and the time of year. Rough data suggest swell arrival in North CA mid-day Sun (4/20) but most energy very northerly and shadowed in the SF Bay Area.

NCal: Expect swell arrival on Sun (4/19) near noon with period 16-17 secs and size on the increase fairly quickly. Swell to peak at 8.6-9.0 ft @ 16 secs near 2-3 PM (14 ft). Swell Direction 296-300 degrees and mostly shadowed in the SF Bay area. Residuals continuing on Monday.  

Potential secondary fetch of 35-40 kt northwest winds are forecast Sun AM (4/20) and holding through the day, fading early Mon AM. Seas rebuilding Sun PM (4/20) to 22 ft up at 50N 152W (309 degs NCal) fading from 22 ft Mon AM (4/21) at 47N 147W (308 degs NCal) then dissipating. More north angled 13-144 sec period swell is possible for NCal with luck.       


Dateline Gale
Another gale is to develop just west of the dateline Sat PM (4/19) with a small area of 35-40 kt northwest winds building. By Sun AM (4/20) a moderate sized area of 40-45 kt northwest winds are forecast west of the dateline with seas on the increase from 26 ft over a small area at 41N 166E (311 degs HI). By evening winds are to already be fading from 35-40 kts aimed to the east with seas peaking at 27 ft at 42N 173E (315 degs HI). Fetch is to be holding at 35 kts Mon AM (4/21) with the gale easing up to the dateline with seas holding at 26 ft over a modest sized area at 43N 178E (322 degs HI, 296 degs NCal). 35 kt west winds to be fading in the evening and lifting north with 26 ft seas holding at 46N 177W (332 degs HI, 299 degs NCal). This system is to be fading with barely 35 kt west winds holding south of the Aleutians Tues AM (4/22) with seas 25 ft at 47N 170W (302 degs NCal). 35 kt west winds to hold on into the evening with seas fading from 22 ft over a broad area at 47N 168W (301 degs NCal). This system is to fade after that. Assuming all goes as forecast, some decent 14-15 sec period swell could result for Hawaii with perhaps a decent shot of 14 sec swell for the US West Coast. it's something to monitor.   


  North Pacific Animations: Jetstream - Surface Pressure/Wind - Sea Height - Surf Height

No tropical systems of interest were being monitored.

California Nearshore Forecast
On Saturday AM (4/19) high pressure at 1022 mbs was northeast of Hawaii and trying to ridge into California but with strong low pressure off British Columbia holding the high back. As a result northwest winds were 10-15 kts with the strongest of them concentrated just north of Pt Conception, and weaker up into Central CA. Low pressure is to be moving into the Gulf Sunday but high pressure is to get a nose under it into Central CA with 15-20 kt northwest winds holding for most of North and all of Central CA, then fading Monday to 10-15 kts as more low pressure builds off British Columbia. Low pressure is to move inland over the Pacific Northwest on Tuesday with a front pushing into Central CA with light rain possible down to Monterey Bay mid-day early and snow starting at sunrise for Tahoe. A new batch of high pressure is to move into the California offshore region with 15+ kt northwest winds in control by Tues evening also reaching into Southern CA at 20 kts and up to 25 kts near Pt Conception. Up to 4 inches of snow possible for Tahoe into Wednesday sunrise. Up to 25 kt northwest winds are forecast for Pt Conception Wednesday (4/23) with lesser winds (15 kts) up to Cape Mendocino.  Southern CA is to have a much lighter wind pattern. Northwest winds are to hold in the 15 kt range for all of Central CA Thursday and pushing 20 kts near Big Sur to Point Conception. A lighter winds pattern is forecast Friday with winds still northwest but only 15 kts isolated to Pt Conception, finally turning near calm on Sat (4/26). A front is to push down the California coast on Friday with light rain down to Monterey Bay, with possibly more behind that for Saturday. 

South Pacific

Surface  - A gale developed in the Southeast Pacific on Fri-Sat (4/12), the same area as a previous gale, but tracked better to the north (see 2nd Southern Hemi Gale below). Yet at third pulse of swell developed behind that (See 3rd Southern Hemi Pulse below). And a 4th stronger gale was developing Fri (4/18) in the same location. 


2nd Southern Hemi Gale
A small fetch of 40-45 kt south to almost southwest winds developed in the far Southeast Pacific on Fri PM (4/11) producing a small area of 28 ft seas at 50S 128W aimed due north at Southern CA (185 degs). The Jason-2 satellite passed over the fetch at 18Z and confirmed seas at 26.5 ft with one reading to 29.6 ft where the model projected 26 ft seas. The model was on track. The fetch built to 45 kt Sat AM (4/12) but still small in areal coverage aimed due north with seas building to 34 ft at 50S 121W (183 degs SCal). Fetch was fading from barely 40 kts in the evening with seas fading from 32 ft over a tiny area at 44S 120W (182 degs SCal). This system was gone by Sun AM (4/13). Some small southern hemi swell to result for Mexico and Southern CA.

Southern CA: Expect swell arrival on Sat AM (4/19) with period 18 secs and size on the increase pushing 2.1 ft @ 17 secs late (3.5 ft with sets to 4.5 ft at top breaks). Swell holding at 2.5 ft @ 15-16 secs (3.5-4.0 ft).on Sun (4/20). Swell fading Mon (4/21) from 2.4 ft @ 14 secs (3.0-3.5 ft). Swell Direction: 185 degrees  


3rd Southern Hemi Pulse
A modest fetch of 40 kt southwest winds developed in the far Southeast Pacific on Sun PM (4/13) resulting in 30 ft seas at 57S 123W for 6 hours (183 degrees).

Southern CA: Perhaps a small pulse of swell to arrive starting late Mon (4/21) with period 19 secs. Swell to peak starting Tues AM (4/22) at 2.3 ft @ 17 secs (3.5-4.0 ft faces). Swell fading Wed AM (4/23) from 2.1 ft @ 16 secs early (3 ft). Swell Direction: 183 degs


4th Southern Hemi Gale 
A broader gale started developing in the Southeast Pacific Fri PM (4/18) with a large area of 45 kt southwest winds taking hold targeting Peru. Seas were on the increase from 28 ft at 52S 142W (191 degs NCal, 195 degs SCal). 45 kt southwest winds continued into Sat AM (4/19) aimed well to the north-northeast with seas building to 39 ft at 54S 136W (188 degs NCal, 191 degs SCal). Fetch is to be fading from 40-45 kts still aimed north northeast and tracking east in the evening with seas up to 40 ft for a brief instant then fading from 39 ft at 48S 127W (185 degs NCal, 186 degs SCal). By Sun AM (4/20) this system is to have only 30-35 kt southwest winds with seas fading from 34 ft on the edge of the SCal swell window 43S 120W (179 degs NCal, 181 degs SCal). A secondary fetch of 40 kt southwest winds are forecast in the evening generating more 31 ft seas at 50S 125W (183 degs NCal, 185 degs SCal). This gale is to be east of the SCal swell window  by Mon AM (4/21). Assuming all goes as forecast a solid pulse of southerly angled swell is likely for all of California with the leading edge possibly hitting Southern CA on Sat (4/26) with period 19 secs. This is one worth monitoring.

South Pacific Animations: Jetstream - Surface Pressure/Wind - Sea Height - Surf Height




Marine weather and forecast conditions 3-10 days into the future

North Pacific

Beyond 72 hours another low is to try and develop off Northern Japan on Wed (4/23) producing 35 kt northwest winds and only 18 ft seas, then fading 24 hours later. no real swell potential is currently suggested from this system. No other swell producing weather systems are forecast.

Note: The Madden Julian Oscillation is a periodic weather cycle that tracks east along the equator circumnavigating the globe. It is characterized in it's Inactive Phase by enhanced trade winds and dry weather over the part of the equatorial Pacific it is in control of, and in it's Active Phase by slack if not an outright reversal of trade winds and enhanced precipitation. The oscillation occurs in roughly 20-30 day cycles (Inactive for 20-30 days, then Active for 20-30 days) over any single location on the.cgianet. During the Active Phase in the Pacific the MJO tends to support the formation of stronger and longer lasting gales resulting in enhanced potential for the formation of swell producing storms. During the Inactive Phase the jet stream tends to .cgiit resulting in high pressure and less potential for swell producing storm development. The paragraphs below analyze the state of the MJO in the Pacific and provide forecasts for MJO activity (which directly relate to the potential for swell production).

As of Saturday (4/19) the daily Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) was up some at 1.58. The 30 day average was rising at 1.54 and the 90 day average was falling at -2.34. The near term trend based on the 30 day SOI was indicative of perhaps a weak version of the Active Phase of the MJO. The longer term pattern was indicative of a neutral Phase of the MJO. The 30 day SOI was rising from the lowest point it's been since the El Nino of '09/10 and suggesting whatever occurred during the Jan-March timeframe (to push it negative) was over. The SOI tends to be a lagging indicator running a week behind surface level weather trends.  

Current equatorial surface wind analysis indicated modest west anomalies (and actually west winds) continuing to hold from the Maritime Continent reaching to the dateline. Neutral anomalies developed east of there holding south of Hawaii and on into Central America. A week from now (4/26) modest west anomalies are expected to hold over the Maritime Continent reaching to the dateline. Neutral anomalies are forecast from there to south of Hawaii turning to weak easterly anomalies from there to the Galapagos. In all this suggests the Active Phase of the MJO is at it's peak in the West Pacific and is to hold but weaken slightly over the next week. This latest batch of West Wind anomalies started (4/7) and were likely strong enough to be considered a minimal Westerly Wind Burst, but have done about all they are capable of by 4/19 and likely minimally restarting the warm water transport mechanism feeding a pre-existing subsurface warm pool. That said - some degree of westerly anomalies are to continue for the next week, so this event is not completely over. Previously a pattern of mult.cgie strong Westerly Wind Bursts occurred Jan-March, but then started moderating in late March, but never give way to a fully Inactive Phase with any hint of easterly anomalies developing west of the dateline. A previous WWB created a large Kelvin Wave tracking towards South America in January (starting 1/8, peaking 1/28 then fading the first week of Feb) followed by a second strong WWB in Feb-Mar (as strong as the first one starting 2/15 and peaking 2/20-3/2 then fading 3/10) setting up and offering yet more reinforcing transport warm water east. And then a third weak westerly wind burst developed (starting 3/12 and faded out by 3/28).  As of right now this series of events is significant and is certainly something to monitor, but does not mean El Nino is in.cgiay. And now with yet a fourth westerly wind anomaly event in.cgiay, the pattern is becoming more than coincidental and suggests some degree of pattern change for the tropics. Of historical note: The big El Nino's of '82/32 and '97/98 both started forming in the February timeframe and progressed non-stop through the Summer and Fall months. A article presenting a Comparison between the genesis of the 1997 El Nino and this 2014 WWB event has been posted here.     

The longer range models (dynamic and statistical) run on 4/18 are in general consensus. They both suggest the Active Phase of the MJO was in control over the West Pacific. The core of the Active Phase was over the Eastern Maritime Continent with it's leading edge on the dateline and respectable in coverage. The Active Phase is to continue holding over the far West Pacific over the next 15 days per both the statistic and dynamic models, though the statistic model is trending a little stronger. Still both models depict the Active Phase holding for 15 days and just as strong then as it is now. This is good news. But the dynamic model depicts the Inactive Phase building in the Indian Ocean pushing east. The ultra long range upper level model has backed off some strength wise as compared to months previous, with the Active Phase tracking over the dateline, and is forecast to slowly fade while tracking east and into Central America through 5/2. A moderate Inactive Phase is to build over the West Pacific 4/27 tracking east while holding together pushing into Central America 5/17. Behind it a very weak Active Phase is to develop about 5/12 pushing towards the east reaching the East Pacific 5/29 with yet another Active Phase building behind it. As hoped for, westerly anomalies have persisted over the West Pacific the first two weeks of April and are forecast for 2 more weeks. For now we'll wait to see what happens next, but all data suggests a change in the Tropical Pacific weather pattern, a required prerequisite to the formation of El Nino. Longterm this signal (suppressed trades in the far equatorial West Pacific) will have to hold into at least August with warm water building greater than 0.5 deg C over the tropical East and Central Pacific (120W to 170W) before one could declare the development of El Nino. And there is much unknown as we traverse the Spring 'Unpredictability Pattern" (mid-March through early June). The whole pattern could just as easily collapse and return to a neutral pattern like last year. It's just too early to know. The upper level model tends to be a leading indicator, with surface level anomalies lagging behind 1 week or more.  

The more warm water in the equatorial East Pacific means more storm production in the North Pacific during winter months (roughly speaking). Cold water in that area has a dampening effect. Regardless of what the atmospheric models and surface winds suggest, actual water temperatures are a ground-truth indicator of what is occurring in the ocean.  As of the most recent imagery (4/17), a thin but distinct warm water regime has taken over the entire equatorial Pacific west of the Galapagos ranging in the +0.5-1.0 deg C range. This pattern started in earnest on 3/29 and has been continuing and solidifying it's grasp every since. It would be best if it could creep 3-4 more degrees south, especially in the area bound by from 90-140W.  A small isolated cool upwelling flow east of the Galapagos is all but gone. Elsewhere the entire North Pacific Ocean is full of warmer than normal water as is the West Pacific (north and south). This is good news. There are no signs of a sympathetic cool pool developing off Africa. There are no real signs of high pressure induced upwelling streaming southwest off California either as would be expected for this time of year.  The only cool water present is streaming off Southern Chile pushing northwest almost reaching up to the equator, but getting shunted south by the warm water falling south from the Northern Hemisphere. But overall the total amount of warmer than normal water in the North Pacific is impressive. The next big development, should it occur, will be the much breech of warm water along the western coast of the Galapagos announcing the arrival of a massive Kelvin Wave currently positioned under the Central Equatorial Pacific. This should occur at anytime now.        

Subsurface waters temps on the equator are of most interest and remain most impressive. Of great interest is a large area of warm +3-5 deg C above normal water in.cgiace and tracking east with it's core 150 meters down somewhere between 160W and 100W.  Some sites are reporting water temps in excess of 6.0 degrees C, but the location of those readings are not near active TOA array sensors and are projections from models rather than the ground truth. Current data suggests it's leading edge is at least at 95W (+6 deg C) and passing the east most line of buoys in the TOA array (95W) and right on the cusp of erupting on western shores of the Galapagos (at 90W). Given the lack of sensors between 155W and 110W, exact details concerning the core remain sketchy. Regardless, a large Kelvin Wave has been generated by 24 days of modest to strong westerly anomalies west of the dateline in January (a Westerly Wind Burst) and reinforced by a second WWB in Feb-Mar with yet a third in March with trades suppressed since then. And yet a 4th WWB is developing in April. The hope is the Kelvin Wave under the mid equatorial Pacific will fuel to what is the start of at least a small warm event. The Kelvin Wave has also been confirmed via satellite in the form of increased surface water heights at +10 cm (one small pocket at + 15 cm just west of the Galapagos on 4/13), suggesting warm water at depth is di.cgiacing the surface upwards. But surface heights are falling on the dateline to 150W, suggesting the core of the warm water pool is now migrating into the East Pacific. When and if this large Kelvin Wave erupts along the South American coast, the increase in water temps should reduce trades above it, which in turn could support yet more warm water building (heated by the sun). Aided by yet another WWB in the West Pacific and more eastward moving warm subsurface water, a feedback loop could develop, reinforcing the warm water flow and buildup off Central America into the Fall. But we're a long ways from that occurring just yet. What is needed is another Westerly Wind burst or at least continued westerly anomalies.  Anything that suppresses trades will suffice to continue the transport mechanism.  Note: Significant reductions in trade wind velocity (below normal) over the West Pacific is enough to set up a Kelvin Wave (i.e. westerly anomalies). Out-and-out west surface winds are not required.   

Projections from the CFSv2 model run 4/19 have stabilized. The model has been continuously suggesting some form of warming starting in March 2014 (which did occur). It now suggests water temps building to +1.0 deg C by early June peaking at +1.6 deg C by Nov 2014. For reference, the big El Nino of '82/83 was at +2.0 degs and '97/98 was +2.2 degs). The El Nino of 09/10 was +1.4 degs. A consensus of other models suggests slow warming, but not passing beyond mildly positive territory till Spring.  

Overall the immediate outlook remains unchanged, but potentially trending towards something that would be considered warm by June 2014, assuming one is to believe the models and the subsurface water configuration. Beyond, a host of other promising signs have developed, including mult.cgie westerly wind bursts, changes in the wind circulation pattern on the equator (Walker Circulation), a large Kelvin Wave moving towards Central America, increased sea surface height anomalies confirm by satellite etc. All of this is good news. At a minimum the ocean is in a recharging mode, with cold water from the 2010-2011 La Nina dispersed and temperatures on the rise in fit's-and-starts. Regardless of the WWBs etc, we are in a neutral ENSO atmospheric pattern at this time with neither any form of El Nino or La Nina present or imminent. Expect a neutral pattern for the Spring of 2014 with perhaps warming developing by May in the equatorial Pacific and possibly increasing during the summer, intensifying into Fall. Monitoring the affects when and if the Kelvin Wave arrives along the equatorial East Pacific will be key to the potential evolution of a warm event. Still there remains 6 months ahead where any number of hazards could derail this event, the most recent being a collapse of the westerly winds in the West Pacific. But this is a better.cgiace than previous years (2010-2011, 2011-2012 and 2012-2013) under the direct influence of La Nina. And it seems apparent we've finally recovered from the 2009-2010 El Nino. In a normal situation one would expect there to be at least one or two years of neutral temperatures ultimately converging in a stronger warmer pattern and possible El Nino 2-3 years out (2015 or 2016). Historically, this is the 'normal' pattern (a few years of false starts post La Nina before a legit El Nino forms). We've turned the corner, but it is still unknown what impact it will have on the atmosphere especially in light of what appears to be a decadal bias towards a cooler regime (since 1998).

See imagery in the ENSO Powertool and more details in the  El Nino Update Updated 12/4/13 

See a 'Comparison between the genesis of the 1997 El Nino and the 2014 WWB Event' Here  (posted 4/5/2014)  


South Pacific

Beyond 72 hours no swell producing weather systems of interest are forecast.

Details to follow...


External Reference Material: El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), Kelvin Wave

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